Table of Contents

Component Description

The Food Security section (variable name prefix FSQ) provides personal interview data on the following topics:

1. Household food security
In the household interview, an adult responded to the U.S. Food Security Survey Module (US FSSM) questions (Bickel G, et al, 2000). There are 18 items for households with children under the age of 18 years and 10 items for households without children. Questions refer to all household members, not just NHANES participants. Three categorical household-level variables were created to characterize the overall food security status for the entire household, the adults in the household, and the children in the household. Responses to the 10 or 18 US FSSM items and the categorical data derived from these responses are released on each household participant’s record.

A question on household member’s use of emergency foods from food banks, soup kitchens, or other organizations in the last 12 month is also included in this section.

Individual-level food security items for adults and children were implemented in the NHANES in 2000, and added for adolescents in 2005. Starting 2011, data collection on individual-level food security items was discontinued.

2. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)/Food Stamp program benefits Food Stamp program benefits
All SNAP/Food Stamp benefits questions were collected at the household level. One adult responded to these questions for the entire household during the household interview. Information collected included whether anyone in the household had ever received SNAP/Food Stamp benefits; whether anyone in the household received benefits in the last 12 months; time since last received benefits within last 12 months; and the amount of benefits the household received last time. In 2011-2012, minor modifications were made to the data collection instruments to allow the household with current SNAP/Food Stamp benefits recipient to be identified as well.

These household-level data on SNAP/Food Stamp benefits are released on all household participants’ records.

3. Women, Infants and Children (WIC) program benefits 
Data collected for WIC benefits included one household-level question as well as 7 individual-level questions for participants birth to 11 years old and 3 individual-level questions for women 12-59 years old. 

In the household interview, an adult responded to the question on whether anyone in the household received WIC benefits in the last 12 months. This household-level question is released on all household participants’ records.

For children participants’ WIC benefits, information was collected on current participation, participation in the last 12 month, and total length (in months) of benefits received. Similar to previous cycles, current participation and participation in the last 12 months were ascertained for children birth to 5 years of age. Starting in 2007-2008, the target age group for the benefit length question was extended from children birth to 5 years old to birth to 11 years old. Additional information was also obtained on WIC participation during various important periods in early childhood, including prenatal, infancy, and 1-4 years old. These data were collected through adult proxy during the household interview as part of the Dietary Behavior and Nutrition questionnaire (DBQ) and released on the individual participant’s record.

For female participants 12 to 59 years old, information was collected on current WIC participation, participation in the last 12 month, and total length (in months) of benefits received. These questions were administered as part of the Reproductive Health questionnaire (RHQ) during the interview in the MEC, using the Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing-CAPI (interviewer administered) system. Due to disclosure risks, the WIC benefits data will only be released for women aged 20 years and above in the present dataset. Data for women 12-19 years old will be available in the Research Data Center (RDC) only. Please refer to the Analytic Notes section for more details.

The table in Appendix 1 provides detailed information on each of the four FSQ components described above. Appendix 2 highlights the changes in the FSQ section among the latest five release cycles.

Quality Assurance & Quality Control

The automated interview systems used in NHANES are programmed with built-in consistency checks to reduce data entry errors. Incoming FSQ data were reviewed for accuracy and completeness. NHANES staff reviewed taped interviews, traveled to field sites to observe interviews, read interviewer comments, and attended training and re-training sessions to maintain the high quality data.

Data Processing and Editing

Frequency counts were checked, "skip" patterns were verified, and the reasonableness of question responses was reviewed. Edits were made to some variables to ensure the completeness, consistency, and analytic usefulness of the data. Edits were also made, when necessary, to address data disclosure concerns.

FSDHH, FSDAD, FSDCH (Household, adult, and child food security category)
Eighteen FSSM questions were asked of households with children under the age of 18. Ten questions were asked of households without children. Three categorical variables, each with four response levels, were created based on the number of affirmative responses for those questions. These categorical variables could be used to characterize the overall food security status for the entire household, the adults in the household, and the children in the household. The algorithms used to derive these categorical variables are described below:

FSDHH (Household food security category):

Count affirmative responses in these 18 items: FSD032a, FSD032b, FSD032c, FSD032d, FSD032e, FSD032f, FSD041, FSD052, FSD061, FSD071, FSD081, FSD092, FSD102, FSD111, FSD122, FSD132, FSD141, and FSD146. Derive the codes as the following:

1 = Household full food security: no affirmative response in any of these items.
2 = Household marginal food security: 1-2 affirmative responses.
3 = Household low food security: 3-5 affirmative responses for household without children under the age of 18; 3-7 affirmative responses for household with children
4 = Household very low food security: 6-10 affirmative responses for household without children under the age of 18; 8-18 affirmative responses for household with children

Households with children but provided no valid response to any of the questions about children’s food security were classified using the specifications for households with no child.

FSDAD (Adult food security category):

Count affirmative responses in these 10 items: FSD032a, FSD032b, FSD032c, FSD041, FSD052, FSD061, FSD071, FSD081, FSD092, and FSD102. Derive the codes as the following:

1 = Adult full food security: no affirmative response in any of these items.
2 = Adult marginal food security: 1-2 affirmative responses.
3 = Adult low food security: 3-5 affirmative responses
4 = Adult very low food security: 6-10 affirmative responses

For households without children under the age of 18, their household food security category (FSDHH) should be identical to their adult food security category (FSDAD).

FSDCH (Child food security category):

This category is only generated for households with children under the age of 18. Count affirmative responses in these 8 items: FSD032d, FSD032e, FSD032f, FSD111, FSD122, FSD132, FSD141, and FSD146. Derive the codes as the following:

1 = Child full or marginal food security: no affirmative response in any of these items.
2 = Child marginal food security: 1 affirmative response.
3 = Child low food security: 2-4 affirmative responses.
4 = Child very low food security: 5-8 affirmative responses.

Definition of FSSM affirmative response

Affirmative response for FSSM questions are defined as:

  • Answered "often true" or "sometimes true" (i.e., codes 1 or 2) for items FSD032a, FSD032b, FSD032c, FSD032d, FSD032e, or FSD032f.
  • Answered "yes" (i.e., code 1) for items FSD041, FSD061, FSD071, FSD081, FSD092, FSD111, FSD122, FSD141, or FSD146.
  • Answered "almost every month", or "some months but not every month" (i.e., codes 1 or 2) for items FSD052, FSD102, or FSD132.

No food security categories are assigned if all or most of these items were answered as “don’t know” or “refusal.” There are 8 such records in the 2011-2012 dataset, 5 of them from households with children. These records contain missing values for FSDHH, FSDAD, and FSDCH.

FSD230 (Currently receive SNAP/Food Stamp benefits)
In previous cycles, the question on whether any members of the household currently receive SNAP/Food Stamp benefits (i.e., FSQ230) was only asked when the respondent refused to answer or did not know the exact date (day, month, and year) that the household last received SNAP/Food Stamp benefits. Staring 2011, modifications were made to the skip patterns, and this question was also asked to respondent who can only recall partial information on the last benefits receiving date (day, month, or year), and those who reported a date that was more than 30-days prior to the interview day.

The household was identified as currently receiving SNAP/Food Stamp benefits (i.e., FSD230 = 1), if the reported last benefits receiving date was within 30 days prior to the interview, or if the current recipient status was confirmed by question FSQ230.

FSD225 (Time since last received SNAP/Food Stamp benefits) 
During the household interview, the respondent was asked to report the date that the household last received SNAP/Food Stamp benefits. A variable was then derived by calculating the number of days between the time the household last received the SNAP/Food Stamp benefit and the date of interview and released as FSD225.

When the respondent refused to answer the question or did not know the exact date, the answer to FSQ230 was used to derive the codes 55555 (current HH FS benefits recipient, last received date unknown) and 66666 (non-current HH FS benefits recipient, last received date unknown) for variable FSD225.

FSD670ZC, FSD670ZW (Number of months the participant received WIC benefit)
This information was collected using two-part (number and unit) questions to allow respondents to report the length in either month or year. The released variables were edited to standardize the reported length to number of months.

A few responses to this item appeared unlikely (e.g., a mother or a child receiving WIC for longer than WIC regulations stipulate). Some of them may have plausible explanations for longer WIC intake (such as a mother with consecutive births/pregnancies) while others may result from recall bias. Data users need to be cautious when analyzing this information.

FSD650ZW (Women received WIC benefit in last 12 month)
Similar to previous data collection cycles, this question only asked of female participants who were pregnant at the time of interview or who had given birth in the two years period prior to the interview.

FSD660ZW (Women currently received WIC benefit)
This question only asked of female participants who received WIC benefits in the last 12 months, and were pregnant or 0-12 months postpartum at the time of interview. The postpartum screening criterion for this question is a new addition started in 2007-2008. It helps to better classify eligibility for WIC benefit.

Analytic Notes

NHANES has assessed household food security with the U.S. Food Security Survey Module (US FSSM) since 1999. Similar modules have been used in various surveys, including the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey (CPS) and a growing number of State, local, and regional studies, such as the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). For more information on food security measurement, please refer to the USDA's website at: http://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/food-nutrition-assistance/food-security-in-the-us/measurement.aspx.

The NHANES household interview included two questionnaires: a sample participant questionnaire to collect information regarding each individual survey participant’s personal health status, and a family questionnaire to collect information at the family level, such as total income for the family, food availability in the family, etc. The sample participant questionnaire was answered by participants themselves (adult proxy for child under 16 years old). The family questionnaire required an adult family member, preferably the head of the family, to respond to these questions for the entire family. The information on household food security status and SNAP/Food Stamp program benefits in the FSQ section were collected as part of this family questionnaire. In 2011-2012, 41 participants had missing values to all of these items in the FSQ section because the family questionnaire was not administered. Most common reasons for missing the family questionnaire interview were: “no eligible adult respondent in the family available” or “refusal.”

In 2011-2014, a new sample design was implemented into the survey to include an oversample of Asian Americans. For more details on NHANES sample design and related analytic issues, please refer to the NHANES Analytic Guidelines, 2011-2012 available at: https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/analyticguidelines.aspx.

Since 2007, pregnant women and individuals 12-19 years old were no longer oversampled in the survey. Those changes have led to a reduced number of pregnant participants ages 8-19 and 45-59. WIC benefit information was collected for female participants aged 12-59 years in 2011-2012. Due to potential disclosure risks, this file does not include data of WIC benefit related variables for females less than 20 years old. For female participants 12-19 years old, records are coded as missing for the following variables: FSD650ZW, FSD660ZW, and FSD670ZW. Please note that these exclusions were not made to the FSQ data files released prior to the 2007-2008 cycle. Analysts wishing to combine data for multiple years should pay careful attention to these changes. The complete data file containing all variables for females 12 years and older (FSQ_G_R) is available through the NCHS Research Data Center.

FSQ data were collected in the household and in the MEC. For data items collected in the household interview, the interview sample weights may be used in their analysis. However, if the data analysis requires merging of data collected in the household with data collected in the MEC, examination sample weights should be used for analyses. The recommended weights for each individual component in the FSQ section are listed in the table in Appendix 1. Please refer to the NHANES Analytic Guidelines and the on-line NHANES Tutorial for further details on the use of sample weights and other analytic issues. Both of these are available on the NHANES website. 

References

Codebook and Frequencies

SEQN - Respondent sequence number

Variable Name:
SEQN
SAS Label:
Respondent sequence number
English Text:
Respondent sequence number.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS

FSD032A - HH Worried run out of food

Variable Name:
FSD032A
SAS Label:
HH Worried run out of food
English Text:
Now I am going to read you several statements that people have made about their food situation. For these statements, please tell me whether the statement was often true, sometimes true, or never true for {you/your household} in the last 12 months, that is since last {DISPLAY CURRENT MONTH}. The first statement is . . . {I/we} worried whether {my/our} food would run out before {I/we} got money to buy more.
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Often true 1123 1123
2 Sometimes true 2070 3193
3 Never true 6503 9696
7 Refused 11 9707
9 Don't know 8 9715
. Missing 41 9756

FSD032B - HH Food didn't last

Variable Name:
FSD032B
SAS Label:
HH Food didn't last
English Text:
[The next statement is . . .] The food that {I/we} bought just didn't last, and {I/we} didn't have money to get more.
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Often true 797 797
2 Sometimes true 1877 2674
3 Never true 7027 9701
7 Refused 7 9708
9 Don't know 7 9715
. Missing 41 9756

FSD032C - HH Couldn't afford balanced meals

Variable Name:
FSD032C
SAS Label:
HH Couldn't afford balanced meals
English Text:
[The next statement is . . .] {I/we} couldn't afford to eat balanced meals.
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Often true 609 609
2 Sometimes true 1432 2041
3 Never true 7657 9698
7 Refused 7 9705
9 Don't know 10 9715
. Missing 41 9756

FSQBOX1 - CHECK ITEM

Variable Name:
FSQBOX1
English Instructions:
BOX 1. CHECK ITEM: IF RESPONSE TO FSD032 'A', 'B', or 'C' IS CODE 1 OR 2 (OFTEN TRUE OR SOMETIMES TRUE), CONTINUE. OTHERWISE, GO TO BOX 3.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS

FSD041 - HH Adults cut size or skip meals

Variable Name:
FSD041
SAS Label:
HH Adults cut size or skip meals
English Text:
In the last 12 months, since last {DISPLAY CURRENT MONTH}, did {you/you or other adults in your household} ever cut the size of your meals or skip meals because there wasn't enough money for food?
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 1263 1263
2 No 2286 3549 FSD061
7 Refused 0 3549 FSD061
9 Don't know 0 3549 FSD061
. Missing 6207 9756

FSD052 - HH How often adults cut size/skip meals

Variable Name:
FSD052
SAS Label:
HH How often adults cut size/skip meals
English Text:
How often did this happen?
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Almost every month, 412 412
2 Some months but not every month, or 604 1016
3 Only 1 or 2 months? 247 1263
7 Refused 0 1263
9 Don't know 0 1263
. Missing 8493 9756

FSD061 - HH Eat less than should

Variable Name:
FSD061
SAS Label:
HH Eat less than should
English Text:
In the last 12 months, did you ever eat less than you felt you should because there wasn't enough money to buy food?
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 1259 1259
2 No 2286 3545
7 Refused 3 3548
9 Don't know 1 3549
. Missing 6207 9756

FSD071 - HH Hungry, but didn't eat

Variable Name:
FSD071
SAS Label:
HH Hungry, but didn't eat
English Text:
[In the last 12 months], were you ever hungry but didn't eat because you couldn't afford enough food?
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 707 707
2 No 2839 3546
7 Refused 3 3549
9 Don't know 0 3549
. Missing 6207 9756

FSD081 - HH Lost weight, no money for food

Variable Name:
FSD081
SAS Label:
HH Lost weight, no money for food
English Text:
[In the last 12 months], did you lose weight because you didn't have enough money for food?
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 404 404
2 No 3135 3539
7 Refused 3 3542
9 Don't know 7 3549
. Missing 6207 9756

FSQBOX2 - CHECK ITEM

Variable Name:
FSQBOX2
English Instructions:
BOX 2. CHECK ITEM: IF RESPONSE TO FSD041, 061, 071, OR 081 IS CODE 1 (YES), CONTINUE. OTHERWISE GO TO BOX 3.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS

FSD092 - HH Adults not eat whole day

Variable Name:
FSD092
SAS Label:
HH Adults not eat whole day
English Text:
[In the last 12 months], did {you/you or other adults in your household} ever not eat for a whole day because there wasn't enough money for food?
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 316 316
2 No 1300 1616
7 Refused 3 1619
9 Don't know 0 1619
. Missing 8137 9756

FSD102 - HH How often adults not eat for day

Variable Name:
FSD102
SAS Label:
HH How often adults not eat for day
English Text:
How often did this happen? Would you say . . .
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Almost every month, 88 88
2 Some months but not every month, or 157 245
3 Only 1 or 2 months? 71 316
7 Refused 0 316
9 Don't know 0 316
. Missing 9440 9756

FSQBOX3 - CHECK ITEM

Variable Name:
FSQBOX3
English Instructions:
BOX 3. CHECK ITEM: IF THERE IS AT LEAST 1 CHILD IN THE HOUSEHOLD WHO IS <= 17 (OR IN THE AGE RANGE THAT INCLUDES OR IS LESS THAN THE ONE THAT INCLUDES 17), CONTINUE. OTHERWISE, GO TO FSDHH.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS

FSD032D - HH Relied on low-cost food for child

Variable Name:
FSD032D
SAS Label:
HH Relied on low-cost food for child
English Text:
[The next statement is . . .] (I/we) relied on only a few kinds of low-cost food to feed {CHILD'S NAME / THE CHILDREN} because (I was/we were) running out of money to buy food.
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Often true 275 275
2 Sometimes true 765 1040
3 Never true 5161 6201
7 Refused 7 6208
9 Don't know 3 6211
. Missing 3545 9756

FSD032E - HH Couldn't feed child balanced meal

Variable Name:
FSD032E
SAS Label:
HH Couldn't feed child balanced meal
English Text:
[The next statement is . . .] (I/we) couldn't feed {CHILD'S NAME / THE CHILDREN} a balanced meal, because (I/we) couldn't afford that.
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Often true 146 146
2 Sometimes true 566 712
3 Never true 5489 6201
7 Refused 7 6208
9 Don't know 3 6211
. Missing 3545 9756

FSD032F - HH Child not eating enough

Variable Name:
FSD032F
SAS Label:
HH Child not eating enough
English Text:
[The next statement is . . .] {CHILD'S NAME WAS /THE CHILDREN WERE} not eating enough because (I/we) just couldn't afford enough food.
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Often true 61 61
2 Sometimes true 324 385
3 Never true 5816 6201
7 Refused 7 6208
9 Don't know 3 6211
. Missing 3545 9756

FSQBOX4 - CHECK ITEM

Variable Name:
FSQBOX4
English Instructions:
BOX 4. CHECK ITEM: IF RESPONSE TO FSD032 'D', 'E', or 'F' IS CODE 1 OR 2 (OFTEN TRUE OR SOMETIMES TRUE)(AFFIRMATIVE), CONTINUE. OTHERWISE, GO TO FSDHH.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS

FSD111 - HH Cut size of child meals

Variable Name:
FSD111
SAS Label:
HH Cut size of child meals
English Text:
In the last 12 months, since {DISPLAY CURRENT MONTH} of last year, did you ever cut the size of {CHILD'S NAME's/any of the children's} meals because there wasn't enough money for food?
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 254 254
2 No 881 1135
7 Refused 0 1135
9 Don't know 0 1135
. Missing 8621 9756

FSD122 - HH Child skip meals

Variable Name:
FSD122
SAS Label:
HH Child skip meals
English Text:
[In the last 12 months], did {CHILD'S NAME/any of the children} ever skip meals because there wasn't enough money for food?
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 66 66
2 No 1069 1135 FSD141
7 Refused 0 1135 FSD141
9 Don't know 0 1135 FSD141
. Missing 8621 9756

FSD132 - HH How often child skip meals

Variable Name:
FSD132
SAS Label:
HH How often child skip meals
English Text:
How often did this happen?
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Almost every month, 17 17
2 Some months but not every month, or 40 57
3 Only 1 or 2 months? 9 66
7 Refused 0 66
9 Don't know 0 66
. Missing 9690 9756

FSD141 - HH Child hungry in last 12 months

Variable Name:
FSD141
SAS Label:
HH Child hungry in last 12 months
English Text:
In the last 12 months, {was CHILD'S NAME/were the children} ever hungry but you just couldn't afford more food?
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 114 114
2 No 1021 1135
7 Refused 0 1135
9 Don't know 0 1135
. Missing 8621 9756

FSD146 - HH Child not eat whole day

Variable Name:
FSD146
SAS Label:
HH Child not eat whole day
English Text:
[In the last 12 months], did {CHILD'S NAME/any of the children} ever not eat for a whole day because there wasn't enough money for food?
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 19 19
2 No 1116 1135
7 Refused 0 1135
9 Don't know 0 1135
. Missing 8621 9756

FSDHH - Household food security category

Variable Name:
FSDHH
SAS Label:
Household food security category
English Text:
Household food security category for last 12 months
English Instructions:
Calculated at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 HH full food security: 0 6089 6089
2 HH marginal food security: 1-2 1371 7460
3 HH low food security: 3-5 (HH w/o child) / 3-7 (HH w/ child) 1468 8928
4 HH very low food security: 6-10 (HH w/o child) / 8-18 (HH w/ child) 779 9707
. Missing 49 9756

FSDAD - Adult food security category

Variable Name:
FSDAD
SAS Label:
Adult food security category
English Text:
Adult food security category for last 12 months
English Instructions:
Calculated at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 AD full food security: 0 6158 6158
2 AD marginal food security: 1-2 1437 7595
3 AD low food security: 3-5 1213 8808
4 AD very low food security: 6-10 899 9707
. Missing 49 9756

FSDCH - Child food security category

Variable Name:
FSDCH
SAS Label:
Child food security category
English Text:
Child food security category for last 12 months
English Instructions:
Calculated at household level. Only applies if there is at least one child 17 years old or less in the household.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 CH full or marginal food security: 0 5066 5066
2 CH marginal food security: 1 436 5502
3 CH low food security: 2-4 607 6109
4 CH very low food security: 5-8 92 6201
. Missing 3555 9756

FSD151 - HH Emergency food received

Variable Name:
FSD151
SAS Label:
HH Emergency food received
English Text:
In the last 12 months, did {you/you or any member of your household} ever get emergency food from a church, a food pantry, or a food bank, or eat in a soup kitchen?
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 1043 1043
2 No 8654 9697
7 Refused 5 9702
9 Don't know 13 9715
. Missing 41 9756

FSQBOX5 - CHECK ITEM

Variable Name:
FSQBOX5
English Instructions:
BOX 5. CHECK ITEM: IF THE RESPONSE TO FSD032 'A', 'B', 'C', 'D', 'E' or 'F' IS 'OFTEN TRUE' (CODE 1) OR 'SOMETIMES TRUE' (CODE 2), OR 'REFUSE' (CODE 7), OR 'DON'T KNOW' (CODE 9) CONTINUE. OTHERWISE, GO TO FSQ165.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS

FSQ165 - HH FS benefit: ever received

Variable Name:
FSQ165
SAS Label:
HH FS benefit: ever received
English Text:
The next questions are about the Food Stamp Program. Food stamps are usually provided on an electronic debit card {or EBT card} {called the {{STATE NAME FOR EBT CARD}} card in {{STATE}}}. Have {you/you or anyone in your household} ever received Food Stamp benefits?
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 3609 3609
2 No 6075 9684 FSQ162
7 Refused 15 9699 FSQ162
9 Don't know 10 9709 FSQ162
. Missing 47 9756

FSQ171 - HH FS benefit: receive in last 12 months

Variable Name:
FSQ171
SAS Label:
HH FS benefit: receive in last 12 months
English Text:
In the last 12 months, did {you/you or any member of your household} receive Food Stamp benefits?
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 2964 2964
2 No 635 3599 FSQ162
7 Refused 8 3607 FSQ162
9 Don't know 2 3609 FSQ162
. Missing 6147 9756

FSD230 - HH FS benefit: currently receive

Variable Name:
FSD230
SAS Label:
HH FS benefit: currently receive
English Text:
{Do you/Does any member of your household} currently receive SNAP or Food Stamp benefits?
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 2749 2749
2 No 207 2956
7 Refused 0 2956
9 Don't know 8 2964
. Missing 6792 9756

FSD225 - HH FS benefit: time since last received

Variable Name:
FSD225
SAS Label:
HH FS benefit: time since last received
English Text:
Number of days between the time the household last received Food Stamp benefit and the date of interview.
English Instructions:
Calculated at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 to 391 Range of Values 2847 2847
55555 Current HH FS benefits recipient, last received date unknown 80 2927
66666 Non-current HH FS benefits recipient, last received date unknown 29 2956
77777 Refused 0 2956
99999 Don't know 8 2964
. Missing 6792 9756

FSQ235 - HH FS benefit: amount received last time

Variable Name:
FSQ235
SAS Label:
HH FS benefit: amount received last time
English Text:
How much did {you/your household} receive in food stamp benefits the last time you got them? ENTER DOLLAR AMOUNT.
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
10 to 1494 Range of Values 2894 2894
77777 Refused 13 2907
99999 Don't know 57 2964
. Missing 6792 9756

FSQBOX7 - CHECK ITEM

Variable Name:
FSQBOX7
English Instructions:
BOX 7. CHECK ITEM: IF THERE IS AT LEAST 1 CHILD IN THE HOUSEHOLD WHO IS 0-5 YEARS OLD OR THERE IS A FEMALE IN THE HOUSEHOLD WHO IS BETWEEN 12 AND 59 YEARS OLD, CONTINUE. OTHERWISE, GO TO BOX 8.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS

FSQ162 - HH WIC benefit: receive in last 12 month

Variable Name:
FSQ162
SAS Label:
HH WIC benefit: receive in last 12 month
English Text:
In the last 12 months, did {you/you or any member of your household} receive benefits from the WIC program, that is, the Women, Infants and Children program?
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 1674 1674
2 No 6162 7836
7 Refused 3 7839
9 Don't know 19 7858
. Missing 1898 9756

FSQBOX8 - CHECK ITEM

Variable Name:
FSQBOX8
English Instructions:
BOX 8. CHECK ITEM: IF THE RESPONDENT AGE BETWEEN 0-5 YEARS, GO TO FSD650ZC. IF THE RESPONDENT AGE BETWEEN 6-11 YEARS, GO TO FSD675. IF THE RESPONDENT IS FEMALE AND AGE 20 YEARS OR OLDER, GO TO BOX9. OTHERWISE, GO TO END OF SECTION.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS

FSD650ZC - CH WIC benefit: receive in last 12 month

Variable Name:
FSD650ZC
SAS Label:
CH WIC benefit: receive in last 12 month
English Text:
Did {SP} receive benefits from WIC, that is, the Women, Infants, and Children program, in the past 12 months?
English Instructions:
Collected at individual level in the household interview.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 5 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 878 878
2 No 713 1591 FSD675
7 Refused 0 1591 FSD675
9 Don't know 4 1595 FSD675
. Missing 8161 9756

FSD660ZC - CH WIC benefit: currently receive

Variable Name:
FSD660ZC
SAS Label:
CH WIC benefit: currently receive
English Text:
Is {SP} now receiving benefits from the WIC program?
English Instructions:
Collected at individual level in the household interview.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 5 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 664 664
2 No 213 877
7 Refused 0 877
9 Don't know 1 878
. Missing 8878 9756

FSD675 - CH WIC benefit: received in infancy

Variable Name:
FSD675
SAS Label:
CH WIC benefit: received in infancy
English Text:
{Next are a few questions about the WIC program, that is, the Women, Infants, and Children program} Did {SP} receive benefits from WIC when {he/she} was less than one year old?
English Instructions:
Collected at individual level in the household interview.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 11 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 1846 1846
2 No 1067 2913
7 Refused 0 2913
9 Don't know 8 2921
. Missing 6835 9756

FSD680 - CH WIC benefit: received b/w 1-4 yrs old

Variable Name:
FSD680
SAS Label:
CH WIC benefit: received b/w 1-4 yrs old
English Text:
Did {SP} receive benefits from WIC when {he/she} {was/is} between the ages of 1 to {SP AGE} years old?
English Instructions:
Collected at individual level in the household interview.
Target:
Both males and females 1 YEARS - 11 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 1429 1429
2 No 1089 2518
7 Refused 0 2518
9 Don't know 11 2529
. Missing 7227 9756

FSD670ZC - CH WIC benefit: # of months received

Variable Name:
FSD670ZC
SAS Label:
CH WIC benefit: # of months received
English Text:
How long {did SP receive/has SP been receiving} benefits from the WIC program?
English Instructions:
Collected at individual level in the household interview.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 11 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 to 72 Range of Values 2903 2903
777 Refused 0 2903
999 Don't know 18 2921
. Missing 6835 9756

FSQ690 - CH WIC benefit: Mom received while preg.

Variable Name:
FSQ690
SAS Label:
CH WIC benefit: Mom received while preg.
English Text:
Did {SP's} mother receive benefits from WIC, while she was pregnant with {SP}?
English Instructions:
Collected at individual level in the household interview.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 11 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 1617 1617
2 No 1261 2878 End of Section
7 Refused 0 2878 End of Section
9 Don't know 44 2922 End of Section
. Missing 6834 9756

FSQ695 - CH WIC benefit: starting month of preg.

Variable Name:
FSQ695
SAS Label:
CH WIC benefit: starting month of preg.
English Text:
What month of the pregnancy did {SP's} mother begin to receive WIC benefits?
English Instructions:
Collected at individual level in the household interview.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 11 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 to 9 Range of Values 1531 1531
77 Refused 1 1532
99 Don't know 85 1617
. Missing 8139 9756

FSQBOX9 - CHECK ITEM

Variable Name:
FSQBOX9
English Instructions:
BOX 9. CHECK ITEM: IF SP CURRENTLY PREGNANT (CODED '1' IN RHD143), CONTINUE WITH FSD650ZW. IF THE AGE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PARTICIPANT'S CURRENT AGE AND AGE REPORTED IN RHD190 IS ZERO, 1, OR 2, CONTINUE WITH FSD650ZW. ELSE IF RHD190 IS MISSING AND THE AGE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PARTICIPANT'S CURRENT AGE AND AGE REPORTED IN RHD173 IS ZERO, 1, OR 2, CONTINUE WITH FSD650ZW. OTHERWISE, GO TO END OF SECTION. NOTE: RHD 143, RHD190, AND RHD173 ARE REPORTED AT THE REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH SECTION (RHQ).
Target:
Females only 20 YEARS - 150 YEARS

FSD650ZW - WM WIC benefit: receive in last 12 month

Variable Name:
FSD650ZW
SAS Label:
WM WIC benefit: receive in last 12 month
English Text:
These next questions are about participation in programs for women with young children. Did {you/SP} personally receive benefits from WIC, that is, the Women, Infants, and Children Program, in the past 12 months?
English Instructions:
Collected at individual level in the MEC interview.
Target:
Females only 20 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 93 93
2 No 101 194 End of Section
7 Refused 0 194 End of Section
9 Don't know 0 194 End of Section
. Missing 9562 9756

FSQBOX10 - CHECK ITEM

Variable Name:
FSQBOX10
English Instructions:
BOX 10. CHECK ITEM: IF CODED '1-12' IN RHQ197, CONTINUE WITH FSD660ZW. IF PARTICIPANT CURRENTLY PREGNANT (CODED '1') IN RHD143, CONTINUE WITH FSD660ZW. OTHERWISE, GO TO END OF SECTION. NOTE: RHD 143 AND RHQ197 ARE REPORTED AT THE REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH SECTION (RHQ).
Target:
Females only 20 YEARS - 150 YEARS

FSD660ZW - WM WIC benefit: currently receive

Variable Name:
FSD660ZW
SAS Label:
WM WIC benefit: currently receive
English Text:
{Are you/Is SP} now receiving benefits from the WIC Program?
English Instructions:
Collected at individual level in the MEC interview.
Target:
Females only 20 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 51 51
2 No 5 56
7 Refused 0 56
9 Don't know 0 56
. Missing 9700 9756

FSD670ZW - WM WIC benefit: # of months received

Variable Name:
FSD670ZW
SAS Label:
WM WIC benefit: # of months received
English Text:
Thinking about {your/SP's} {pregnancy/recent pregnancy/most recent pregnancy/most recent pregnancies}, how long {did you receive/have you been receiving/did she receive/has she been receiving} benefits from the WIC Program?
English Instructions:
Collected at individual level in the MEC interview.
Target:
Females only 20 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 to 36 Range of Values 56 56
777 Refused 0 56
999 Don't know 0 56
. Missing 9700 9756

Appendix 1

Components of the Food Security (FSQ) section in 2011-2012
Component Data Collection Details Recommended Weights Variable Name Target: Gender Age Label
Household Food Security




















Food Security (FSQ)
Family Interview

Household level




















Interview




















FSD032A MF (0-150) HH Worried run out of food
FSD032B MF (0-150) HH Food didn't last
FSD032C MF (0-150) HH Couldn't afford balanced meals
FSD041 MF (0-150) HH Adults cut size or skip meals
FSD052 MF (0-150) HH How often adults cut size/skip meals
FSD061 MF (0-150) HH Eat less than should
FSD071 MF (0-150) HH Hungry, but didn't eat
FSD081 MF (0-150) HH Lost weight, no money for food
FSD092 MF (0-150) HH Adults not eat whole day
FSD102 MF (0-150) HH How often adults not eat for day
FSD032D MF (0-150) HH Relied on low-cost food for child
FSD032E MF (0-150) HH Couldn't feed child balanced meal
FSD032F MF (0-150) HH Child not eating enough
FSD111 MF (0-150) HH Cut size of child meals
FSD122 MF (0-150) HH Child skip meals
FSD132 MF (0-150) HH How often child skip meals
FSD141 MF (0-150) HH Child hungry in last 12 months
FSD146 MF (0-150) HH Child not eat whole day
FSDHH MF (0-150) Household food security category
FSDAD MF (0-150) Adult food security category
FSDCH MF (0-150) Child food security category
FSD151 MF (0-150) HH Emergency food received
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)/Food Stamp Program Benefits



Food Security (FSQ)
Family Interview


Household level



Interview



FSQ165 MF (0-150) HH FS benefit: ever received
FSQ171 MF (0-150) HH FS benefit: receive in last 12 months
FSD230 MF (0-150) HH FS benefit: currently receive
FSD225 MF (0-150) HH FS benefit: time since last received
FSQ235 MF (0-150) HH FS benefit: amount received last time
Women, Infants and Children (WIC) Program Benefits









Food Security (FSQ)
Family Interview

Household level
Interview FSQ162 MF (0-150) HH WIC benefit: receive in last 12 month
Diet Behavior (DBQ)
Household Interview

Individual level





Interview





FSD650ZC MF (0-5) CH WIC benefit: receive in last 12 month
FSD660ZC MF (0-5) CH WIC benefit: currently receive
FSD675 MF (0-11) CH WIC benefit: received in infancy
FSD680 MF (1-11) CH WIC benefit: received b/w 1-4 yrs old
FSD670ZC MF (0-11) CH WIC benefit: # of months received
FSQ690 MF (0-11) CH WIC benefit: Mom received while preg.
FSQ695 MF (0-11) CH WIC benefit: starting month of preg.
Reproductive Health (RHQ)
Mobile Exam Center (MEC)

Individual level

MEC Exam

FSD650ZW F (20-59) WM WIC benefit: SP receive in last 12 month
FSD660ZW F (20-59) WM WIC benefit: SP currently receive
FSD670ZW F (20-59) WM WIC benefit: # of months SP received

Appendix 2

Changes in the FSQ section among the latest five release cycles
Item 2003-2004 2005-2006 2007-2008 2009-2010 2011-2012
Eligible sample for household food security questions Households with income equal or less than 4 times the Department of Health and Human Services’ poverty guidelines All households All households All households All households
Codes for child food security category (FSDCH) 1=CH food quality & quantity unaffected
2=CH reduced food quality or quantity
3=CH reduced food quality and quantity
4=CH severely reduced food quality and quantity
No changes from 2003-2004 Modified labels as:
1=CH full or marginal food security
2=CH marginal food security
3=CH low food security
4=CH very low food security
No changes from 2007-2008 No changes from 2007-2008
Individual food security questions for 0-11 years old Collected and released 6 items; 5 of them were categorical variables with response options "yes" or "no"; 1 follow-up question on number of days the child skipped a meal. Collected and released 5 items; dropped follow-up question on number of days the child skipped a meal; modified response options for categorical variables as "often", "sometimes", "never". Collected and released 5 items; no changes from 2005-2006. Released 5 items same as 2007-2008. The order of the questions was modified to make it consistent across age groups; modified response options to "yes" or "no" then followed affirmative answer with a frequency question "Did that happen often, sometimes or just once or twice?" No longer collected
Individual food security questions for 16+ years old Collected and released 7 items; 5 of them were categorical variables with response options "yes" or "no"; 2 follow-up questions on number of days the participant skipped meals and days participant did not eat the whole day. Collected and released 6 items; dropped follow-up questions on number of days the participant skipped meals and days participant did not eat the whole day; separated the question of cut the meal size and skipped meals into 2 questions; modified response options for categorical variables as "often", "sometimes", "never". Collected and released 6 items; no changes from 2005-2006. Released 5 items same as 2007-2008. The order of the questions was modified to make it consistent across age groups; modified response options to "yes" or "no" then followed affirmative answer with a frequency question "Did that happen often, sometimes or just once or twice?" No longer collected
Individual food security questions for 12-15 years old Not collected Collected and released 5 items similar to questions for children 0-11 years old. Collected and released 5 items; no changes from 2005-2006. No changes from 2007-2008 No longer collected
Household members ever received Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program(SNAP)/Food Stamp (FS) benefits Not collected Not collected Collected and released for all households No changes from 2007-2008, except including the term “Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program(SNAP)” in the questionnaire No changes from 2009-2010
Household members received Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program(SNAP)/Food Stamp (FS) benefits in the last 12 months Collected as "any household members authorized to receive Food Stamps". No changes from 2003-2004 Collected as "any household members received FS benefits"; the word "authorized" was no longer used. No changes from 2007-2008, except including the term SNAP in the questionnaire No changes from 2009-2010
Household members currently receive Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program(SNAP)/Food Stamp (FS) benefits Cannot be ascertained Cannot be ascertained Cannot be ascertained Cannot be ascertained Derived and released for all households with member(s) who received SNAP/FS benefits in the last 12 months.
Time since last received Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program(SNAP)/Food Stamp (FS) benefits Not collected Not collected Collected and released for all households with member(s) who received FS benefits in the last 12 months. No changes from 2007-2008, except including the term SNAP in the questionnaire No changes from 2009-2010
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program(SNAP)/Food Stamp (FS) benefit amount received last time Not collected Collected and released in 2 separate items; benefit received in last month for households with current FS participant(s); benefit received last time for households with no current participant but had received benefits in the last 12 months. Collected and released 1 item for all households with member(s) who received FS benefits in the last 12 months. No changes from 2007-2008, except including the term SNAP in the questionnaire No changes from 2009-2010
Individual level questions on Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program(SNAP)/Food Stamp (FS) benefits in the last 12 months 3 items collected for all household members but only released data on survey participants: whether authorized to receive FS benefits; the length of the benefits authorized in the last 12 months; current participation. No changes from 2003-2004. Not collected Not collected Not collected
Number of people in the household authorized to receive Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program(SNAP)/Food Stamp (FS) benefits in the last 12 months Derived from individual level FS questions collected from all household members. No changes from 2003-2004. Not collected Not collected Not collected
Child received WIC benefits in infancy Not collected Not collected Collected and released for children 0-11 years old. No changes from 2007-2008 No changes from 2007-2008
Child received WIC benefits between 1 to 4 years old Not collected Not collected Collected and released for children 0-11 years old. No changes from 2007-2008 No changes from 2007-2008
Total number of months the child received WIC benefits Collected and released for children 0-5 years old. Collected and released for children 0-5 years old. Collected and released for children 0-11 years old. No changes from 2007-2008 No changes from 2007-2008
Mom received WIC benefits while pregnant with the child participant Not collected Not collected Collected and released for children 0-11 years old; also included an item for the month of pregnancy that mom started to receive WIC benefits. No changes from 2007-2008 No changes from 2007-2008
WIC benefits questions for women Collected and released for women 12-59 years old. Collected and released for women 12-59 years old. Collected for women 12-59 years old, but only publically released for 20-59 years old due to disclosure risks. No changes from 2007-2008 No changes from 2007-2008
Women currently receive WIC benefits Collected for female participants who received WIC benefits in the last 12 month. Collected for female participants who received WIC benefits in the last 12 month. Collected for female participants who received WIC benefits in the last 12 month, and were pregnant or 0-12 months postpartum at the time of interview. No changes from 2007-2008 No changes from 2007-2008