Table of Contents

Component Description

Flame retardants (FRs) are either additive or reactive ingredients applied to household and consumer products to reduce the products flammability, and to meet state and federal fire safety standards and regulations. Until recently, the dominant class of FR additives used for household products was polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which are persistent and can accumulate in the environment (de Wit, 2002; Law 2006, Stapleton 2012). Flame retardant formulations containing chlorinated and non-chlorinated organophosphates and products such as Firemaster 550 (FM550) have entered the consumers’ market worldwide as PBDEs have been phased-out in many countries (van der Veen, 2012). We recently developed a method to measure diphenyl phosphate, bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate), bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate, bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, di-p-cresyl phosphate, di-o-cresyl phosphate, dibutyl phosphate, dibenzyl phosphate, and 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoic acid . These compounds are urinary metabolites of triphenyl phosphate, tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate, tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate, tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, tri-cresyl phosphates, tributyl phosphate, tribenzyl phosphate, and 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate, respectively, and can be used as exposure biomarkers for these compounds.

Eligible Sample

A random 1/3 sample of participants aged 6+ years from NHANES 2013-2014 with stored urine.

Description of Laboratory Methodology

The method uses 0.4 mL urine and is based on enzymatic hydrolysis of urinary conjugates of the target analytes, automated off-line solid phase extraction, reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography separation, and isotope dilution-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry detection (Jayatilaka 2017).

Laboratory Quality Assurance and Monitoring

The analytical measurements were conducted following strict quality control/quality assurance CLIA guidelines. Along with the study samples, each analytical run included high- and low-concentration quality control materials (QCs) and reagent blanks to assure the accuracy and reliability of the data. The concentrations of the high-concentration QCs and the low-concentration QCs, averaged to obtain one measurement of high-concentration QC and low-concentration QC for each run, were evaluated using standard statistical probability rules (Caudill et al. 2008).

Data Processing and Editing

Data were received after all analyses were complete. The data were not edited. Data Access: All data are publicly available.

Analytic Notes

Detection Limits

The detection limits were constant for all of the analytes in the data set. Two variables are provided for each analyte. The variable name ending in “L” (ex., SSDPHPL) indicates whether the result was below the limit of detection: the value “0” means that the result was at or above the limit of detection, “1” indicates that the result was below the limit of detection. For analytes with analytic results below the limit of detection (ex., SSDPHPL=1), an imputed fill value was placed in the analyte results field. This value is the limit of detection divided by square root of 2 (LOD/√2). The other variable prefixed SS (ex., SSDPHP) provides the analytic result for that analyte.

The limit of detection (LOD, in µg/L) for DPhP, BDCPP, BCPP, BCEtP, DpCP, DoCP, DBuP, DBzP and TBBA:

Variable Name SAS Label LLOD
SSDPHP Diphenyl phosphate (µg/L) 0.16
SSBDCPP Bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (µg/L) 0.11
SSBCPP Bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (µg/L) 0.10
SSBCEP Bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (µg/L) 0.08
SSDPCP Di-p-cresyl phosphate (µg/L) 0.05
SSDOCP Di-o-cresyl phosphate (µg/L) 0.05
SSDBUP Dibutyl phosphate (µg/L) 0.05
SSDBZP Dibenzyl phosphate (µg/L) 0.05
SSTBBA 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoic acid (µg/L) 0.05

Interferences:

Blanks in an analyte results field represent missing values in cases when the presence of interferences precluded obtaining a valid numeric result for a given analyte.

References

Codebook and Frequencies

SEQN - Respondent sequence number

Variable Name:
SEQN
SAS Label:
Respondent sequence number
English Text:
Respondent sequence number.
Target:
Both males and females 6 YEARS - 150 YEARS

WTSC2YR - Environmental Subsample C Weights

Variable Name:
WTSC2YR
SAS Label:
Environmental Subsample C Weights
English Text:
Environmental Subsample C Weights
Target:
Both males and females 6 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
14405.432403 to 540770.28649 Range of Values 2666 2666
. Missing 0 2666

SSDPHP - Diphenyl phosphate (ug/L)

Variable Name:
SSDPHP
SAS Label:
Diphenyl phosphate (ug/L)
English Text:
Diphenyl phosphate (ug/L)
Target:
Both males and females 6 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0.11 to 193 Range of Values 2660 2660
. Missing 6 2666

SSDPHPL - Diphenyl phosphate cmt code

Variable Name:
SSDPHPL
SAS Label:
Diphenyl phosphate cmt code
English Text:
Diphenyl phosphate comment code
Target:
Both males and females 6 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 At or above the detection limit 2447 2447
1 Below lower detection limit 213 2660
. Missing 6 2666

SSBDCPP - Bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phospht(ug/L)

Variable Name:
SSBDCPP
SAS Label:
Bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phospht(ug/L)
English Text:
Bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (ug/L)
Target:
Both males and females 6 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0.08 to 169 Range of Values 2646 2646
. Missing 20 2666

SSBDCPPL - Bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate cmt

Variable Name:
SSBDCPPL
SAS Label:
Bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate cmt
English Text:
Bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate comment code
Target:
Both males and females 6 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 At or above the detection limit 2461 2461
1 Below lower detection limit 185 2646
. Missing 20 2666

SSBCPP - Bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (ug/L)

Variable Name:
SSBCPP
SAS Label:
Bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (ug/L)
English Text:
Bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (ug/L)
Target:
Both males and females 6 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0.07 to 46.7 Range of Values 2665 2665
. Missing 1 2666

SSBCPPL - Bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate cmt

Variable Name:
SSBCPPL
SAS Label:
Bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate cmt
English Text:
Bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate comment code
Target:
Both males and females 6 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 At or above the detection limit 1632 1632
1 Below lower detection limit 1033 2665
. Missing 1 2666

SSBCEP - Bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (ug/L)

Variable Name:
SSBCEP
SAS Label:
Bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (ug/L)
English Text:
Bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (ug/L)
Target:
Both males and females 6 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0.06 to 110 Range of Values 2651 2651
. Missing 15 2666

SSBCEPL - Bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate cmt code

Variable Name:
SSBCEPL
SAS Label:
Bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate cmt code
English Text:
Bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate comment code
Target:
Both males and females 6 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 At or above the detection limit 2375 2375
1 Below lower detection limit 276 2651
. Missing 15 2666

SSDPCP - Di-p-cresyl phosphate (ug/L)

Variable Name:
SSDPCP
SAS Label:
Di-p-cresyl phosphate (ug/L)
English Text:
Di-p-cresyl phosphate (ug/L)
Target:
Both males and females 6 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0.04 to 1.83 Range of Values 2664 2664
. Missing 2 2666

SSDPCPL - Di-p-cresyl phosphate cmt code

Variable Name:
SSDPCPL
SAS Label:
Di-p-cresyl phosphate cmt code
English Text:
Di-p-cresyl phosphate comment code
Target:
Both males and females 6 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 At or above the detection limit 367 367
1 Below lower detection limit 2297 2664
. Missing 2 2666

SSDOCP - Di-o-cresyl phosphate (ug/L)

Variable Name:
SSDOCP
SAS Label:
Di-o-cresyl phosphate (ug/L)
English Text:
Di-o-cresyl phosphate (ug/L)
Target:
Both males and females 6 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0.04 to 1.1 Range of Values 2665 2665
. Missing 1 2666

SSDOCPL - Di-o-cresyl phosphate cmt code

Variable Name:
SSDOCPL
SAS Label:
Di-o-cresyl phosphate cmt code
English Text:
Di-o-cresyl phosphate comment code
Target:
Both males and females 6 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 At or above the detection limit 2 2
1 Below lower detection limit 2663 2665
. Missing 1 2666

SSDBUP - Dibutyl phosphate (ug/L)

Variable Name:
SSDBUP
SAS Label:
Dibutyl phosphate (ug/L)
English Text:
Dibutyl phosphate (ug/L)
Target:
Both males and females 6 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0.04 to 70.3 Range of Values 2663 2663
. Missing 3 2666

SSDBUPL - Dibutyl phosphate cmt code

Variable Name:
SSDBUPL
SAS Label:
Dibutyl phosphate cmt code
English Text:
Dibutyl phosphate comment code
Target:
Both males and females 6 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 At or above the detection limit 2151 2151
1 Below lower detection limit 512 2663
. Missing 3 2666

SSDBZP - Dibenzyl phosphate (ug/L)

Variable Name:
SSDBZP
SAS Label:
Dibenzyl phosphate (ug/L)
English Text:
Dibenzyl phosphate (ug/L)
Target:
Both males and females 6 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0.04 0.04 2665 2665
. Missing 1 2666

SSDBZPL - Dibenzyl phosphate cmt code

Variable Name:
SSDBZPL
SAS Label:
Dibenzyl phosphate cmt code
English Text:
Dibenzyl phosphate comment code
Target:
Both males and females 6 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 At or above the detection limit 0 0
1 Below lower detection limit 2665 2665
. Missing 1 2666

SSTBBA - 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoic acid (ug/L)

Variable Name:
SSTBBA
SAS Label:
2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoic acid (ug/L)
English Text:
2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoic acid (ug/L)
Target:
Both males and females 6 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0.04 to 1.14 Range of Values 2665 2665
. Missing 1 2666

SSTBBAL - 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoic acid cmt code

Variable Name:
SSTBBAL
SAS Label:
2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoic acid cmt code
English Text:
2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoic acid comment code
Target:
Both males and females 6 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 At or above the detection limit 135 135
1 Below lower detection limit 2530 2665
. Missing 1 2666