Table of Contents

Component Description

The income section (variable name prefix INQ) provides family level information on income sources, monthly income, family cash assets, and mode of transportation to grocery store(s). Information on family’s annual income was also collected in this section and was released as part of the Demographics file (DEMO_I).

Two modifications were made in the 2015-16 survey cycle:

  • The target group for the family asset questions (INQ300, IND310) was extended from lower income families only to all families; and
  • A new question was added to assess household access to a vehicle for grocery shopping (INQ320).

Eligible Sample

All participants were eligible.

Interview Setting and Mode of Administration

These questions were asked as part of the NHANES Family Questionnaire, in the home, using the Computer-Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) system. Hand cards showing response categories were also used for some questions. One respondent in each family answered these questions.

Quality Assurance & Quality Control

The CAPI system is programmed with built-in consistency checks to reduce data entry errors. CAPI also uses online help screens to assist interviewers in defining key terms used in the questionnaire. All of the data was reviewed by the NHANES field office staff for accuracy and completeness.

Data Processing and Editing

Frequency counts were checked, “skip” patterns were verified, and the reasonableness of question responses was reviewed. Edits were made to some variables to ensure the completeness, consistency, and analytic usefulness of the data. Edits were also made, when necessary, to address data disclosure concerns. When a variable was modified globally, as part of the editing process, the third letter in the variable name was changed from a Q (i.e., INQ) to a D (i.e., IND). For example, some data were collected using two variables (a number variable and a unit of measure variable), but combined into a single variable for data release purposes.

IND235 (Family monthly income)

The respondent was asked to report total family income, received last month in dollars, for themselves and the other members of their family. Family monthly income is released as a range of values, in dollars, to minimize disclosure risks. The response categories are: $0 - $399, $400 - $799, $800 - $1249, $1250 - $1649, $1650 - $2099, $2100 - $2899, $2900 - $3749, $3750 - $4599, $4600 - $5399, $5400 - $6249, $6250 - $8399, $8400 and over. These response categories were chosen to mirror the categories used for reporting annual income.

INDFMMPI (Family monthly poverty level index)

This variable is an index for the ratio of monthly income to poverty. The 2015 and 2016 Department of Health and Human Services’ (HHS) poverty guidelines were used as the poverty measure to calculate this index (HHS 2017). These guidelines are issued each year, in the Federal Register, for determining financial eligibility for certain federal programs, such as Head Start, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) (formerly Food Stamp Program), Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), and the National School Lunch Program. The variable INDFMMPI was calculated by dividing family income by the poverty guidelines, specific to family size, as well as the appropriate year and state. Values at or above 5.00 were coded as 5.00 or more because of disclosure concerns. The values were not computed if the family income data was missing.

INDFMMPC (Family monthly poverty level index category)

For respondents who reported their family monthly income in dollar amounts, we calculated their family monthly poverty level index (INDFMMPI) as described above. The index was then grouped into three categories (i.e., INDFMMPI ≤1.30, 1.30 < INDFMMPI ≤ 1.85, INDFMMPI >1.85) and reported in this variable. These categories were chosen because they represented commonly used percentages of the poverty guidelines (i.e., 130 percent and 185 percent of the guidelines), by federal programs, in determining eligibility.

When the respondent refused to answer the family monthly income question or did not know the total combined family income, a monthly income screener question was asked (question INQ238) to query whether the monthly family income was below 185% of the HHS poverty guidelines. If the response was positive, a follow-up question (INQ241) was asked to see whether the family’s monthly income was more or less than 130% of the HHS poverty guidelines. For these respondents, answers to INQ238 and INQ241 were used to derive variable INDFMMPC.

INQ300, IND310 (Total savings/cash assets)

The respondent was first asked whether the family has savings or cash assets more than $20,000 (INQ300). If the family did not have savings or cash assets more than $20,000, the respondent would then be asked a follow-up question (IND310) to select a dollar range from a list printed on a hand card for the family’s total savings and cash assets amount. The response categories are: $0 - $3000, $3001 - $5000, $5001 - $10000, $10001 - $15000, $15001 - $20000. Note that beginning in 2015-2016, this question is asked of all families.

Analytic Notes

The income questions were asked as part of household interview, the interview sample weights may be used in the analysis for data in this section. However, if the data is joined with other data from the Mobile Examination Center (MEC), the MEC exam weights should be used.

Please refer to the NHANES Analytic Guidelines and the on-line NHANES Tutorial for further details on the use of sample weights and other analytic issues. Both of these are available on the NHANES website.

References

Codebook and Frequencies

SEQN - Respondent sequence number

Variable Name:
SEQN
SAS Label:
Respondent sequence number
English Text:
Respondent sequence number.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS

INQ020 - Income from wages/salaries

Variable Name:
INQ020
SAS Label:
Income from wages/salaries
English Text:
The next questions are about {your/your combined family} income. When answering these questions, please remember that by {"income/combined family income"}, I mean {your income/your income plus the income of {NAMES OF OTHER NHANES FAMILY MEMBERS} for {LAST CALENDAR YEAR}. Did {you/you and OTHER NHANES FAMILY MEMBERS 16+} receive income in {LAST CALENDAR YEAR} from wages and salaries? [Did {you/you or OTHER FAMILY MEMBERS 16+} get paid for work in {LAST CALENDAR YEAR}.]
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 7877 7877
2 No 1656 9533
7 Refused 56 9589
9 Don't know 53 9642
. Missing 329 9971

INQ012 - Income from self employment

Variable Name:
INQ012
SAS Label:
Income from self employment
English Text:
Did {you/you or any family members 16 and older} receive income in {LAST CALENDAR YEAR} from self-employment including business and farm income? [Self-employment means you worked for yourself.]
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 1737 1737
2 No 7852 9589
7 Refused 36 9625
9 Don't know 17 9642
. Missing 329 9971

INQ030 - Income from Social Security or RR

Variable Name:
INQ030
SAS Label:
Income from Social Security or RR
English Text:
When answering the next questions about different kinds of income members of your family might have received in {LAST CALENDAR YEAR}, please consider that we also want to know about family members less than 16 years old. Did {you/you or any family members living here, that is: you or NAME(S) OF OTHER NHANES FAMILY MEMBERS} receive income in {LAST CALENDAR YEAR} from Social Security or Railroad Retirement?
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 2295 2295
2 No 7266 9561
7 Refused 45 9606
9 Don't know 36 9642
. Missing 329 9971

INQ060 - Income from other disability pension

Variable Name:
INQ060
SAS Label:
Income from other disability pension
English Text:
Did {you/you or any family members living here} receive any disability pension [other than Social Security or Railroad Retirement] in {LAST CALENDAR YEAR}?
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 697 697
2 No 8893 9590
7 Refused 32 9622
9 Don't know 20 9642
. Missing 329 9971

INQ080 - Income from retirement/survivor pension

Variable Name:
INQ080
SAS Label:
Income from retirement/survivor pension
English Text:
Did {you/you or any family members living here} receive retirement or survivor pension [other than Social Security or Railroad Retirement or disability pension] in {LAST CALENDAR YEAR}?
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 929 929
2 No 8669 9598
7 Refused 34 9632
9 Don't know 10 9642
. Missing 329 9971

INQ090 - Income from Supplemental Security Income

Variable Name:
INQ090
SAS Label:
Income from Supplemental Security Income
English Text:
Did {you/you or any family members living here} receive Supplemental Security Income [SSI] in {LAST CALENDAR YEAR}?
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 836 836
2 No 8744 9580
7 Refused 28 9608
9 Don't know 34 9642
. Missing 329 9971

INQ132 - Income from state/county cash assistance

Variable Name:
INQ132
SAS Label:
Income from state/county cash assistance
English Text:
Did {you/you or any family members living here} receive any cash assistance from a state or county welfare program such as {DISPLAY SPECIFIC STATE PROGRAMS} in {LAST CALENDAR YEAR}?
English Instructions:
CAPI INSTRUCTION: DISPLAY FULL NAMES OF ALL STATE PROGRAMS FOR STATE IN WHICH INTERVIEW IS BEING CONDUCTED. NAMES FOR EACH STATE WILL BE SENT TO PROGRAMMING IN A SEPARATE FILE. DISPLAY "welfare, public assistance, AFDC, or some other program" WHEN NO STATE PROGRAMS FOR STATE IN WHICH INTERVIEW IS BEING CONDUCTED ARE SPECIFIED IN TABLE.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 566 566
2 No 9034 9600
7 Refused 29 9629
9 Don't know 13 9642
. Missing 329 9971

INQ140 - Income from interest/dividends or rental

Variable Name:
INQ140
SAS Label:
Income from interest/dividends or rental
English Text:
Did {you/you or any family members living here} receive interest from savings or other bank accounts or income from dividends received from stocks or mutual funds or net rental income from property, royalties, estates, or trusts in {LAST CALENDAR YEAR}?
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 1853 1853
2 No 7708 9561
7 Refused 43 9604
9 Don't know 38 9642
. Missing 329 9971

INQ150 - Income from other sources

Variable Name:
INQ150
SAS Label:
Income from other sources
English Text:
Did {you/you or any family members living here} receive income in {LAST CALENDAR YEAR} from child support, alimony, contributions from family or others, VA payments, worker's compensation, or unemployment compensation?
English Instructions:
INTERVIEWER INSTRUCTION: CONTRIBUTIONS INCLUDE GIFTS. INTERVIEWER INSTRUCTION: IF RESPONDENT IS A COLLEGE STUDENT LIVING AWAY FROM THEIR FAMILY PLEASE ADD "INCLUDING MONEY RECIEVED FROM FAMILY FOR COLLEGE TUITION, BOOKS AND LIVING EXPENSES"
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 1559 1559
2 No 8038 9597
7 Refused 40 9637
9 Don't know 5 9642
. Missing 329 9971

IND235 - Monthly family income

Variable Name:
IND235
SAS Label:
Monthly family income
English Text:
Monthly family income (reported as a range value in dollars).
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 $0 - $399 278 278
2 $400 - $799 403 681
3 $800 - $1,249 857 1538
4 $1,250 - $1,649 667 2205
5 $1,650 - $2,099 743 2948
6 $2,100 - $2,899 846 3794
7 $2,900 - $3,749 1060 4854
8 $3,750 - $4,599 789 5643
9 $4,600 - $5,399 590 6233
10 $5,400 - $6,249 555 6788
11 $6,250 - $8,399 635 7423
12 $8,400 and over 1025 8448
77 Refused 203 8651
99 Don't know 769 9420
. Missing 551 9971

INDFMMPI - Family monthly poverty level index

Variable Name:
INDFMMPI
SAS Label:
Family monthly poverty level index
English Text:
Family monthly poverty level index, a ratio of monthly family income to the HHS poverty guidelines specific to family size.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 to 4.96 Range of Values 7542 7542
5 Value greater than or equal to 5.00 906 8448
. Missing 1523 9971

INDFMMPC - Family monthly poverty level category

Variable Name:
INDFMMPC
SAS Label:
Family monthly poverty level category
English Text:
Family monthly poverty level index categories.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Monthly poverty level index ≤1.30 3729 3729
2 1.30 < Monthly poverty level index ≤ 1.85 1405 5134
3 Monthly poverty level index >1.85 4043 9177
7 Refused 63 9240
9 Don't know 179 9419
. Missing 552 9971

INQ300 - Family has savings more than $20,000

Variable Name:
INQ300
SAS Label:
Family has savings more than $20,000
English Text:
Do {you/NAMES OF OTHER FAMILY/you and NAMES OF FAMILY MEMBERS} have more than $20,000 in savings at this time? Please include money in your checking accounts.
English Instructions:
INTERVIEWER INSTRUCTION: INCLUDE CASH, SAVINGS OR CHECKING ACCOUNTS, STOCKS, BONDS, MUTUAL FUNDS, RETIREMENT FUNDS (SUCH AS PENSIONS, IRAS, 401KS, ETC), AND CERTIFICATES OF DEPOSIT. CAPI INSTRUCTION: DISPLAY "you" for single-person family; DISPLAY "the members of your family" for multi-persons family.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 2218 2218 INQ320
2 No 6939 9157
7 Refused 122 9279 INQ320
9 Don't know 141 9420 INQ320
. Missing 551 9971

IND310 - Total savings/cash assets for the family

Variable Name:
IND310
SAS Label:
Total savings/cash assets for the family
English Text:
Total savings or cash assets at this time for {you/NAMES OF OTHER FAMILY/your family}.
English Instructions:
HAND CARD INQ3. ENTER LETTER.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 $0 - $3,000 5426 5426
2 $3,001 - $5,000 588 6014
3 $5,001 - $10,000 450 6464
4 $10,001 - $15,000 237 6701
5 $15,001 - $20,000 110 6811
77 Refused 52 6863
99 Don't know 76 6939
. Missing 3032 9971

INQ320 - How do you get to the grocery store?

Variable Name:
INQ320
SAS Label:
How do you get to the grocery store?
English Text:
Please look at this card. How do {you/you or anyone who lives in the household} usually get to the store (or stores) where you do most of your grocery shopping?
English Instructions:
HAND CARD INQ5 INTERVIEWER INSTRUCTION: 1. IF THE RESPONDENT CANNOT DECIDE ON ONE SINGLE ANSWER, PROBE FOR THE "USUAL/MOST COMMON" WAY. 2. SELECT "NO USUAL MODE OF TRAVELING TO STORE" ONLY WHEN THE RESPONDENT CANNOT REPORT A SINGLE USUAL MODE FOR THE QUESTION. 3. IF THE RESPONDENT USES DIFFERENT MODES FOR GETTING TO AND RETURNING FROM STORE, ENTER THE MODE OF "GETTING TO" THE STORE.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 In my car 8179 8179
2 In a car that belongs to someone I live with 409 8588
3 In a car that belongs to someone who lives elsewhere 410 8998
4 Walk 311 9309
5 Ride bicycle 30 9339
6 Bus, subway or other public transit 124 9463
7 Taxi or other paid driver 75 9538
8 Someone else delivers groceries 36 9574
9 Other 44 9618
66 No usual mode of traveling to store 11 9629
77 Refused 13 9642
99 Don't know 0 9642
. Missing 329 9971