Table of Contents

Component Description

Neonicotinoids  are a class of insecticides used in growing genetically-modified corn, soybeans, cotton, sunflowers, and canola, as well as various other genetically-modified and non-genetically-modified vegetables and fruits (Cimino et al. 2017). Approximately 90% of the corn and 50% of the soybeans planted in the USA have been treated with neonicotinoids (Douglas 2015). Neonicotinoid insecticides are also used in lawn treatment and in pet collars (Tomizawa 2005).

The neonicotinoid family includes acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, nithiazine, thiacloprid and thiamethoxam; imidacloprid is the world’s single most widely applied insecticide. Neonics have neurotoxic action on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor; neonicotinoids have received increased scrutiny because they may adversely affect pollinators and are linked to colony collapse disorder in bees (Hladik et al. 2014) and the decline of insectivorous birds (Hallmann, 2014). Additionally, neonicotinoids are persistent in the environment and have been detected in streams and food, among other environmental matrices (Chen et al. 2014, Hladik et al. 2014). For example, multiple neonicotinoids were detected in 72% of fruits and 45% of vegetables procured in 2012 from Boston neighborhood grocery stores, with imidacloprid present in about 70% of fruits and vegetables (Chen et al. 2014).

To better understand exposure to some of the most commonly used neonicotinoids we  measured Imidacloprid, 5-Hydroxy imidacloprid, Acetamiprid, N-desmethyl Acetamiprid, Clothianidin and Thiacloprid in one third subsample of participants 3+ years of age from NHANES 2015-2016. 

Eligible Sample

All participants aged 3-5 years old and an one-third sample of participants aged 6 and older from NHANES 2015-2016 with stored urine.

Description of Laboratory Methodology

The method uses 0.2 mL urine and is based on enzymatic hydrolysis of urinary conjugates of the target analytes, online solid phase extraction, reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography separation, and isotope dilution-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry detection (Baker 2018, in preparation).

Laboratory Quality Assurance and Monitoring

The analytical measurements were conducted following strict quality control/quality assurance CLIA guidelines. Along with the study samples, each analytical run included high- and low-concentration quality control materials (QCs) and reagent blanks to assure the accuracy and reliability of the data. The concentrations of the high-concentration QCs and the low-concentration QCs, averaged to obtain one measurement of high-concentration QC and low-concentration QC for each run, were evaluated using standard statistical probability rules (Caudill et al. 2008).

Data Processing and Editing

Data were received after all analyses were complete. The data were not edited.     Data Access: All data are publicly available.

Analytic Notes

Detection Limits

The detection limits were constant for all of the analytes in the data set. Two variables are provided for each analyte. The variable name ending in “L” (ex., SSECBAL) indicates whether the result was below the limit of detection: the value “0” means that the result was at or above the limit of detection, “1” indicates that the result was below the limit of detection. For analytes with analytic results below the limit of detection (ex.,SSECBAL=1), an imputed fill value was placed in the analyte results field. This value is the limit of detection divided by square root of 2 (LOD/√2). The other variable prefixed SS (ex., SSECBA) provides the analytic result for that analyte.

The limit of detection (LOD, in µg/L) for IMID, ACET, CLOT, THIA, OHIM, and AND:

Variable Name

SAS Label

LOD

SSIMID

Imidacloprid (µg/L)

0.40

SSACET

Acetamiprid (µg/L)

0.30

SSCLOT

Clothianidin (µg/L)

0.20

SSTHIA

Thiacloprid (µg/L)

0.03

SSOHIM

5-Hydroxyimidacloprid (µg/L)

0.40

SSAND

N-Desmethylacetamiprid (µg/L)

0.20

 

Interferences:

Blanks in an analyte results field represent missing values in cases when the presence of interferences precluded obtaining a valid numeric result for a given analyte.


References

Codebook and Frequencies

SEQN - Respondent sequence number

Variable Name:
SEQN
SAS Label:
Respondent sequence number
English Text:
Respondent sequence number.
Target:
Both males and females 3 YEARS - 150 YEARS

WTSB2YR - Subsample B weights

Variable Name:
WTSB2YR
SAS Label:
Subsample B weights
English Text:
Subsample B weights
Target:
Both males and females 3 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
6552.119284 to 874638.01159 Range of Values 3038 3038
. Missing 0 3038

SSIMID - Imidacloprid (ug/L)

Variable Name:
SSIMID
SAS Label:
Imidacloprid (ug/L)
English Text:
Imidacloprid (ug/L)
Target:
Both males and females 3 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0.28 to 4.94 Range of Values 2995 2995
. Missing 43 3038

SSIMIDLC - Imidacloprid (ug/L) Cmt code

Variable Name:
SSIMIDLC
SAS Label:
Imidacloprid (ug/L) Cmt code
English Text:
Imidacloprid (ug/L) Cmt code
Target:
Both males and females 3 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 At or above the detection limit 146 146
1 Below lower detection limit 2849 2995
. Missing 43 3038

SSACET - Acetamiprid (ug/L)

Variable Name:
SSACET
SAS Label:
Acetamiprid (ug/L)
English Text:
Acetamiprid (ug/L)
Target:
Both males and females 3 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0.21 to 1.7 Range of Values 3025 3025
. Missing 13 3038

SSACETLC - Acetamiprid (ug/L) Cmt code

Variable Name:
SSACETLC
SAS Label:
Acetamiprid (ug/L) Cmt code
English Text:
Acetamiprid (ug/L) Cmt code
Target:
Both males and females 3 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 At or above the detection limit 14 14
1 Below lower detection limit 3011 3025
. Missing 13 3038

SSCLOT - Clothianidin (ug/L)

Variable Name:
SSCLOT
SAS Label:
Clothianidin (ug/L)
English Text:
Clothianidin (ug/L)
Target:
Both males and females 3 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0.14 to 31.1 Range of Values 3018 3018
. Missing 20 3038

SSCLOTLC - Clothianidin (ug/L) Cmt code

Variable Name:
SSCLOTLC
SAS Label:
Clothianidin (ug/L) Cmt code
English Text:
Clothianidin (ug/L) Cmt code
Target:
Both males and females 3 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 At or above the detection limit 226 226
1 Below lower detection limit 2792 3018
. Missing 20 3038

SSTHIA - Thiacloprid (ug/L)

Variable Name:
SSTHIA
SAS Label:
Thiacloprid (ug/L)
English Text:
Thiacloprid (ug/L)
Target:
Both males and females 3 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0.02 to 1.79 Range of Values 2998 2998
. Missing 40 3038

SSTHIALC - Thiacloprid (ug/L) Cmt code

Variable Name:
SSTHIALC
SAS Label:
Thiacloprid (ug/L) Cmt code
English Text:
Thiacloprid (ug/L) Cmt code
Target:
Both males and females 3 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 At or above the detection limit 3 3
1 Below lower detection limit 2995 2998
. Missing 40 3038

SSOHIM - 5-Hydroxyimidacloprid (ug/L)

Variable Name:
SSOHIM
SAS Label:
5-Hydroxyimidacloprid (ug/L)
English Text:
5-Hydroxyimidacloprid (ug/L)
Target:
Both males and females 3 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0.28 to 40.4 Range of Values 2878 2878
. Missing 160 3038

SSOHIMLC - 5-Hydroxyimidacloprid (ug/L)Cmt code

Variable Name:
SSOHIMLC
SAS Label:
5-Hydroxyimidacloprid (ug/L)Cmt code
English Text:
5-Hydroxyimidacloprid (ug/L)Cmt code
Target:
Both males and females 3 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 At or above the detection limit 542 542
1 Below lower detection limit 2336 2878
. Missing 160 3038

SSAND - N-Desmethylacetamiprid (ug/L)

Variable Name:
SSAND
SAS Label:
N-Desmethylacetamiprid (ug/L)
English Text:
N-Desmethylacetamiprid (ug/L)
Target:
Both males and females 3 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0.14 to 34.7 Range of Values 3012 3012
. Missing 26 3038

SSANDLC - N-Desmethylacetamiprid (ug/L) Cmt code

Variable Name:
SSANDLC
SAS Label:
N-Desmethylacetamiprid (ug/L) Cmt code
English Text:
N-Desmethylacetamiprid (ug/L) Cmt code
Target:
Both males and females 3 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 At or above the detection limit 1136 1136
1 Below lower detection limit 1876 3012
. Missing 26 3038