Table of Contents

Component Description

The Recent Tobacco Use (variable name prefix SMQRTU) dataset provides details on use of cigarettes, pipes, cigars and other forms of tobacco as well as nicotine replacement therapy products in the past 5 days.

Eligible Sample

All participants aged 12 years and older were eligible. For participants aged 12-17 years, there were no proxy interviews.

Interview Setting and Mode of Administration

These questions were asked at the Mobile Examination Center (MEC) during the MEC Interview. For adults aged 18 years and older, questions were asked by trained interviewers using the Computer-Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) system. For youths 12-17 years, questions were self-administered using the Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) system, in English and Spanish only.

Quality Assurance & Quality Control

The CAPI and ACASI systems are programmed with built-in consistency checks to reduce data entry errors. CAPI also uses online help screens to assist interviewers in defining key terms used in the questionnaire.

Data Processing and Editing

Edits were made to ensure completeness, consistency and analytic usefulness of the data. A special variable, SMAQUEX was created as a flag to designate each interview mode and age group.

Analytic Notes

Questions in this section were expanded to include additional tobacco products including dissolvables, snus and e-cigarettes beginning in 2013-2014. At that time, separate filter questions for tobacco products that are “smoked,” “smokeless,” and for “nicotine replacement products” (adults 18 years and older) were added. Variable names for tobacco products and their use included in previous NHANES cycles were maintained in this data file where possible. Analysts should, therefore, carefully follow the SMQRTU 2017-18 codebook for variable names and skip patterns, as well as the questionnaires. Prior to 2005-2006, the data file with variables about recent tobacco exposure was named SMQMEC.

SMDANY: A summary variable for any tobacco use in the past 5 days. For adults 18 years and older, this was based on responses to three questions on tobacco use (smoke, smokeless, nicotine replacement therapy products) (SMQ681, SMQ851, SMQ863). For youths aged 12-17 years, SMDANY was based on responses to SMQ681 and SMQ851 (smoke and smokeless).

Responses for two smokeless products (snus, dissolvables) were combined into a single category “other smokeless” due to small counts (SMQ690K and SMQ857O).

Related questions on cigarette and tobacco use are located in the SMQ, SMQFAM and SMQSHS data files. Biochemical indicators of tobacco exposure including serum cotinine, are found in NHANES laboratory data files.

The NHANES full sample 2-Year MEC Exam Weights (WREC2YR) should be used to analyze the 2017-18 SMQRTU variables in conjunction with the laboratory measurements on tobacco exposure or other examination measurements.

Please refer to the NHANES Analytic Guidelines and the on-line NHANES Tutorial for further details on the use of sample weights and other analytic issues.

Codebook and Frequencies

SEQN - Respondent sequence number

Variable Name:
SEQN
SAS Label:
Respondent sequence number
English Text:
Respondent sequence number.
Target:
Both males and females 12 YEARS - 150 YEARS

SMQ681 - Smoked tobacco last 5 days?

Variable Name:
SMQ681
SAS Label:
Smoked tobacco last 5 days?
English Text:
The following questions ask about use of tobacco products in the past 5 days. During the past 5 days, including today, did you smoke cigarettes, pipes, cigars, little cigars or cigarillos, water pipes, hookahs, or e-cigarettes?
Target:
Both males and females 12 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 1133 1133
2 No 4820 5953 SMQ851
7 Refused 0 5953 SMQ851
9 Don't know 0 5953 SMQ851
. Missing 448 6401

SMQ690A - Used last 5 days - Cigarettes

Variable Name:
SMQ690A
SAS Label:
Used last 5 days - Cigarettes
English Text:
Which of these products did {you/he/she} use?
English Instructions:
(CHECK ALL THAT APPLY). Verbal instructions to respondent: Please select all that you used.
Target:
Both males and females 12 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Cigarettes 916 916
77 Refused 0 916
99 Don't know 0 916
. Missing 5485 6401

SMQ710 - # days smoked cigarettes last 5 days

Variable Name:
SMQ710
SAS Label:
# days smoked cigarettes last 5 days
English Text:
During the past 5 days, including today, on how many days did {you/he/she} smoke cigarettes?
English Instructions:
ENTER NUMBER OF DAYS.
Target:
Both males and females 12 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Hard Edits:
1 to 5
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 to 5 Range of Values 915 915
7 Refused 0 915
9 Don't know 1 916
. Missing 5485 6401

SMQ720 - # cigarettes smoked per day

Variable Name:
SMQ720
SAS Label:
# cigarettes smoked per day
English Text:
During the past 5 days, including today, on the days {you/he/she} smoked, how many cigarettes did {you/he/she} smoke each day?
English Instructions:
ENTER NUMBER OF CIGARETTES. IF 95 OR MORE CIGARETTES PER DAY, ENTER 95.
Target:
Both males and females 12 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Hard Edits:
1 to 95
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 to 40 Range of Values 915 915
95 95 or more 1 916
777 Refused 0 916
999 Don't know 0 916
. Missing 5485 6401

SMQ725 - When did resp. smoke last cigarette?

Variable Name:
SMQ725
SAS Label:
When did resp. smoke last cigarette?
English Text:
When did {you/he/she} smoke {your/his/her} last cigarette? Was it...
Target:
Both males and females 12 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Today 720 720
2 Yesterday 134 854
3 3 to 5 days ago 62 916
7 Refused 0 916
9 Don't know 0 916
. Missing 5485 6401

SMQ690B - Used last 5 days - Pipes

Variable Name:
SMQ690B
SAS Label:
Used last 5 days - Pipes
English Text:
Which of these products did {you/he/she} use?
English Instructions:
(CHECK ALL THAT APPLY). Verbal instructions to respondent: Please select all that you used.
Target:
Both males and females 12 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
2 Pipes 12 12
. Missing 6389 6401

SMQ740 - # days smoked pipe over last 5 days

Variable Name:
SMQ740
SAS Label:
# days smoked pipe over last 5 days
English Text:
During the past 5 days, including today, on how many days did {you/he/she} smoke a pipe?
English Instructions:
ENTER NUMBER OF DAYS.
Target:
Both males and females 12 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Hard Edits:
1 to 5
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 to 5 Range of Values 12 12
7 Refused 0 12
9 Don't know 0 12
. Missing 6389 6401

SMQ690C - Used last 5 days - Cigars

Variable Name:
SMQ690C
SAS Label:
Used last 5 days - Cigars
English Text:
Which of these products did {you/he/she} use?
English Instructions:
(CHECK ALL THAT APPLY). Verbal instructions to respondent: Please select all that you used.
Target:
Both males and females 12 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
3 Cigars or little cigars or cigarilllos 176 176
. Missing 6225 6401

SMQ770 - # days smoked cigars over last 5 days

Variable Name:
SMQ770
SAS Label:
# days smoked cigars over last 5 days
English Text:
During the past 5 days, including today, on how many days did {you/he/she} smoke cigars, or little cigars or cigarillos?
English Instructions:
ENTER NUMBER OF DAYS.
Target:
Both males and females 12 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Hard Edits:
1 to 5
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 to 5 Range of Values 176 176
7 Refused 0 176
9 Don't know 0 176
. Missing 6225 6401

SMQ690G - Used last 5 days - Hookah, water pipes

Variable Name:
SMQ690G
SAS Label:
Used last 5 days - Hookah, water pipes
English Text:
Which of these products did {you/he/she} use?
English Instructions:
CHECK ALL THAT APPLY). Verbal instructions to respondent: Please select all that you used.
Target:
Both males and females 12 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
7 Water pipes or Hookahs 27 27
. Missing 6374 6401

SMQ845 - # days smoked water pipe last 5 days

Variable Name:
SMQ845
SAS Label:
# days smoked water pipe last 5 days
English Text:
During the past 5 days, including today, on how many days did {you/he/she} smoke tobacco in a water pipe or Hookah?
English Instructions:
ENTER NUMBER OF DAYS.
Target:
Both males and females 12 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Hard Edits:
1 to 5
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 to 5 Range of Values 27 27
7 Refused 0 27
9 Don't know 0 27
. Missing 6374 6401

SMQ690H - Used last 5 days - E-cigarettes

Variable Name:
SMQ690H
SAS Label:
Used last 5 days - E-cigarettes
English Text:
Which of these products did {you/he/she} use?
English Instructions:
(CHECK ALL THAT APPLY). Verbal instructions to respondent: Please select all that you used.
Target:
Both males and females 12 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
8 E-cigarettes 118 118
. Missing 6283 6401

SMQ849 - # days smoked e-cigarette last 5 days

Variable Name:
SMQ849
SAS Label:
# days smoked e-cigarette last 5 days
English Text:
During the past 5 days, including today, on how many days did {you/he/she} smoke an e-cigarette?
English Instructions:
ENTER NUMBER OF DAYS.
Target:
Both males and females 12 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Hard Edits:
1 to 5
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 to 5 Range of Values 118 118
7 Refused 0 118
9 Don't know 0 118
. Missing 6283 6401

SMQ851 - Used smokeless tobacco last 5 days?

Variable Name:
SMQ851
SAS Label:
Used smokeless tobacco last 5 days?
English Text:
Smokeless tobacco products are placed in the mouth or nose and include chewing tobacco, snuff, snus, or dissolvables. During the past 5 days, including today, did {you/he/she} use any smokeless tobacco? (Please do not include nicotine replacement products like patches, gum, lozenge, or spray which are considered products to help {you/him/her} stop smoking.)
Target:
Both males and females 12 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 94 94
2 No 5858 5952 SMQ863
7 Refused 0 5952 SMQ863
9 Don't know 0 5952 SMQ863
. Missing 449 6401

SMQ690D - Used last 5 days - Chewing tobacco

Variable Name:
SMQ690D
SAS Label:
Used last 5 days - Chewing tobacco
English Text:
Which of these products did {you/he/she} use?
English Instructions:
(CHECK ALL THAT APPLY). Verbal instructions to respondent: Please select all that you used.
Target:
Both males and females 12 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
4 Chewing tobacco 45 45
. Missing 6356 6401

SMQ800 - # days used chewing tobacco last 5 day

Variable Name:
SMQ800
SAS Label:
# days used chewing tobacco last 5 day
English Text:
During the past 5 days, including today, on how many days did {you/he/she} use chewing tobacco, such as Redman, Levi Garrett or Beechnut?
English Instructions:
ENTER NUMBER OF DAYS.
Target:
Both males and females 12 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Hard Edits:
1 to 5
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 to 5 Range of Values 45 45
7 Refused 0 45
9 Don't know 0 45
. Missing 6356 6401

SMQ690E - Used last 5 days - Snuff

Variable Name:
SMQ690E
SAS Label:
Used last 5 days - Snuff
English Text:
Which of these products did {you/he/she} use?
English Instructions:
(CHECK ALL THAT APPLY). Verbal instructions to respondent: Please select all that you used.
Target:
Both males and females 12 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
5 Snuff 46 46
. Missing 6355 6401

SMQ817 - # days used snuff over last 5 days

Variable Name:
SMQ817
SAS Label:
# days used snuff over last 5 days
English Text:
During the past 5 days, including today, on how many days did {you/he/she} use snuff, such as Skoal, Skoal Bandits, or Copenhagen?
English Instructions:
ENTER NUMBER OF DAYS.
Target:
Both males and females 12 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Hard Edits:
1 to 5
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 to 5 Range of Values 46 46
7 Refused 0 46
9 Don't know 0 46
. Missing 6355 6401

SMQ690K - Used last 5 days - Other smokeless

Variable Name:
SMQ690K
SAS Label:
Used last 5 days - Other smokeless
English Text:
Which of these products did {you/he/she} use?
Target:
Both males and females 12 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
11 Other Smokeless 3 3
. Missing 6398 6401

SMQ857O - # days used Other smokeless last 5 days

Variable Name:
SMQ857O
SAS Label:
# days used Other smokeless last 5 days
English Text:
During the past 5 days, including today, on how many days did {you/he/she} use other smokeless tobacco products?
English Instructions:
ENTER NUMBER OF DAYS.
Target:
Both males and females 12 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Hard Edits:
1 to 5
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 to 5 Range of Values 3 3
7 Refused 0 3
9 Don't know 0 3
. Missing 6398 6401

SMQ863 - Used nicotine replacement last 5 days?

Variable Name:
SMQ863
SAS Label:
Used nicotine replacement last 5 days?
English Text:
During the past 5 days, including today, did {you/he/she} use any nicotine replacement therapy products such as nicotine patches, gum, lozenges, inhalers, or nasal sprays?
Target:
Both males and females 18 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 23 23
2 No 5108 5131 SMDANY
7 Refused 0 5131 SMDANY
9 Don't know 0 5131 SMDANY
. Missing 1270 6401

SMQ690F - Used last 5 days - Patch, gum, other

Variable Name:
SMQ690F
SAS Label:
Used last 5 days - Patch, gum, other
English Text:
Which of these products did {you/he/she} use?
English Instructions:
(CHECK ALL THAT APPLY). Verbal instructions to respondent: Please select all that you used.
Target:
Both males and females 18 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
6 Nicotine patches, gum, or other nicotine replacement therapy product 23 23
. Missing 6378 6401

SMQ830 - # days used nicotine quit smoking aids?

Variable Name:
SMQ830
SAS Label:
# days used nicotine quit smoking aids?
English Text:
During the past 5 days, including today, on how many days did {you/he/she} use any nicotine replacement therapy products such as nicotine patches, gum, lozenges, inhalers, or nasal sprays?
English Instructions:
ENTER NUMBER OF DAYS.
Target:
Both males and females 18 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Hard Edits:
1 to 5
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 to 5 Range of Values 23 23
7 Refused 0 23
9 Don't know 0 23
. Missing 6378 6401

SMQ840 - When last used nicotine quit smoking aid

Variable Name:
SMQ840
SAS Label:
When last used nicotine quit smoking aid
English Text:
When did {you/he/she} last use a nicotine replacement therapy product? Was it . . .
Target:
Both males and females 18 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Today 5 5
2 Yesterday 9 14
3 3 to 5 days ago 9 23
7 Refused 0 23
9 Don't know 0 23
. Missing 6378 6401

SMDANY - Used any tobacco product last 5 days?

Variable Name:
SMDANY
SAS Label:
Used any tobacco product last 5 days?
English Text:
Used any tobacco product last 5 days?
Target:
Both males and females 12 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 1211 1211
2 No 4741 5952
7 Refused 0 5952
9 Don't know 0 5952
. Missing 449 6401

SMAQUEX - Questionnaire Mode Flag

Variable Name:
SMAQUEX
SAS Label:
Questionnaire Mode Flag
English Text:
Questionnaire Mode Flag.
Target:
Both males and females 12 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 ACASI B(12 - 17 Yrs.) 868 868
2 MEC CAPI B(18 - 150 Yrs.) 5533 6401
. Missing 0 6401