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Work-related asthma: Most frequently reported agents associated with work-related asthma cases by asthma classification, 2009–2012

AOEC1MW3New-onset Asthma4Work-aggravated Asthma5Confirmed, but Unclassified6Total
CodeAgentA2NumberPercentNumberPercentNumberPercentNumberPercent
Miscellaneous chemicals and materials 203 23.7 206 22.8 437 21.7 846 22.4
320.06 Chemicals, n.o.s. U 73 8.5 55 6.1 193 9.6 321 8.5
320.23 Perfume, n.o.s. U 24 2.8 52 5.8 52 2.6 128 3.4
320.39 World Trade Center pollution U 28 3.3 21 2.3 72 3.6 121 3.2
320.16 Pesticides, n.o.s. U 10 1.2 13 1.4 16 0.8 39 1
320.110 Glues, n.o.s. U 11 1.3 11 1.2 12 0.6 34 0.9
320.100 Fire extinguisher discharge U 5 0.6 7 0.8 17 0.8 29 0.8
320.15 Odors U 1 0.1 9 1 18 0.9 28 0.7
320.42 Air freshener U 3 0.4 9 1 12 0.6 24 0.6
320.450 Insecticides, n.o.s. U 4 0.5 2 0.2 9 0.4 15 0.4
321.00 Pharmaceuticals, n.o.s. U 3 0.4 1 0.1 8 0.4 12 0.3
320.28 Cosmetics, n.o.s. U 2 0.2 3 0.3 3 0.1 8 0.2
323.03 Sewer water U 5 0.6 2 0.2 1 0.05 8 0.2
320.35 Carpet dust U 1 0.1 3 0.3 3 0.1 7 0.2
320.13 Herbicides, n.o.s. U 5 0.6 1 0.1 6 0.2
324.05 Pancreatin A U 1 0.1 1 0.1 4 0.2 6 0.2
320.27 Mace L 1 0.1 3 0.3 1 0.05 5 0.1
327.00 Water contamination, n.o.s.; hot tub fumes, n.o.s. U 3 0.4 2 0.2 5 0.1
All others within this exposure category7 23 2.7 11 1.2 16 0.8 50 1.3
Mineral and inorganic dusts 175 20.4 224 24.8 216 10.7 615 16.3
010.00 Dust, n.o.s. U 127 14.8 194 21.5 173 8.6 494 13.1
010.03 Cement dust U 14 1.6 4 0.4 11 0.5 29 0.8
010.091 Fiberglass U 9 1.1 9 1 9 0.4 27 0.7
010.020 Asbestos, n.o.s. U 9 1.1 1 0.1 12 0.6 22 0.6
010.040 Toner, copier U 2 0.2 3 0.3 2 0.1 7 0.2
010.133 Silica, crystalline L 3 0.4 3 0.3 6 0.2
All others within this exposure category7 11 1.3 10 1.1 9 0.4 30 0.8
Cleaning materials 184 21.5 184 20.4 209 10.4 577 15.3
322.00 Cleaning materials, n.o.s. U 48 5.6 42 4.7 74 3.7 164 4.3
322.10 Sodium hypochlorite A L 30 3.5 28 3.1 33 1.6 91 2.4
322.19 Cleaners, disinfectant, n.o.s. U 22 2.6 20 2.2 13 0.6 55 1.5
322.21 Cleaners, floor stripping U 18 2.1 26 2.9 11 0.5 55 1.5
322.35 Floor wax U 10 1.2 23 2.5 22 1.1 55 1.5
322.16 Cleaners, carpet U 3 0.4 8 0.9 12 0.6 23 0.6
322.31 Cleaning mixtures (excluding bleach plus acid or ammonia) U 12 1.4 8 0.9 20 0.5
322.07 Ammonium hydroxide, n.o.s. A L 4 0.5 7 0.8 8 0.4 19 0.5
322.18 Cleaners, detergent, n.o.s. U 3 0.4 3 0.3 3 0.1 9 0.2
322.25 Cleaners, oven U 2 0.2 2 0.2 5 0.2 9 0.2
322.28 Cleaners, toilet bowl U 3 0.4 5 0.2 8 0.2
322.11 Bleach plus acid (mixture) U 4 0.5 1 0.1 2 0.1 7 0.2
322.320 Quaternary ammonium compounds, n.o.s. L 4 0.5 2 0.2 1 0.05 7 0.2
322.12 Bleach plus ammonia (mixture) U 2 0.2 1 0.1 3 0.1 6 0.2
322.326 Alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride A L 3 0.4 2 0.2 1 0.05 6 0.2
322.06 Cleaners, solvent-based U 2 0.2 1 0.1 2 0.1 5 0.1
322.323 Didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride A L 2 0.2 2 0.2 1 0.05 5 0.1
All others within this exposure category7 12 1.4 8 0.9 13 0.6 33 0.9
Pyrolysis products 109 12.7 142 15.7 186 9.2 437 11.6
330.03 Smoke, n.o.s. U 65 7.6 94 10.4 127 6.3 286 7.6
330.01 Cigarette smoke U 21 2.5 11 1.2 27 1.3 59 1.6
331.01 Diesel exhaust U 14 1.6 13 1.4 15 0.7 42 1.1
331.00 Exhaust, n.o.s. U 3 0.4 8 0.9 12 0.6 23 0.6
330.02 Plastic smoke U 4 0.5 10 1.1 1 0.05 15 0.4
331.03 Jet exhaust U 1 0.1 4 0.4 2 0.1 7 0.2
All others within this exposure category7 1 0.1 2 0.2 2 0.1 5 0.1
Indoor air pollutants 105 12.3 91 10.1 161 8 357 9.5
320.01 Air pollutants, indoor U 62 7.2 51 5.7 83 4.1 196 5.2
320.33 Indoor air pollutants from building renovation U 43 5 40 4.4 78 3.9 161 4.3
Mold 92 10.7 83 9.2 88 4.4 263 7
391.01 Mold, n.o.s. H 90 10.5 80 8.9 88 4.4 258 6.8
All others within this exposure category7 2 0.2 3 0.3 5 0.1
Plant/Tree material 67 7.8 59 6.5 72 3.6 198 5.2
370.35 Capsicum L 11 1.3 18 2 22 1.1 51 1.4
370.004 Plant material, n.o.s. U 8 0.9 7 0.8 15 0.7 30 0.8
373.00 Wood dust, n.o.s. L 10 1.2 6 0.7 10 0.5 26 0.7
370.10 Pollen H 10 1.2 10 1.1 2 0.1 22 0.6
371.00 Flour, n.o.s. A H 12 1.4 5 0.6 2 0.1 19 0.5
370.010 Paper dust U 7 0.8 1 0.1 4 0.2 12 0.3
370.07 Grass cuttings H 1 0.1 2 0.2 6 0.3 9 0.2
370.08 Hay H 5 0.6 3 0.1 8 0.2
All others within this exposure category7 8 0.9 5 0.6 8 0.4 21 0.6
Ergonomics 10 1.2 67 7.4 96 4.8 173 4.6
360.06 Exercise N/A 10 1.2 41 4.5 44 2.2 95 2.5
360.04 Stress N/A 25 2.8 52 2.6 77 2
All others within this exposure category7 1 0.1 1 0.03
Solvents, n.o.s. 49 5.7 39 4.3 50 2.5 138 3.7
171.01 Paint, n.o.s. U 29 3.4 30 3.3 39 1.9 98 2.6
171.00 Solvents, n.o.s. U 12 1.4 4 0.4 4 0.2 20 0.5
171.07 Lacquer U 5 0.6 1 0.1 4 0.2 10 0.3
All others within this exposure category7 3 0.4 4 0.4 3 0.1 10 0.3
Animal/Insect material 38 4.4 35 3.9 38 1.9 111 2.9
380.14 Mice A H 9 1.1 2 0.2 5 0.2 16 0.4
380.00 Animal material, n.o.s. H 5 0.6 6 0.7 4 0.2 15 0.4
380.22 Cat A H 2 0.2 5 0.6 8 0.4 15 0.4
380.18 Rat antigens A H 7 0.8 3 0.3 10 0.3
380.040 Animal dander, n.o.s. H 2 0.2 5 0.6 2 0.1 9 0.2
382.00 Insect, n.o.s. H 3 0.4 4 0.4 2 0.1 9 0.2
380.20 Rat feces H 2 0.2 3 0.3 2 0.1 7 0.2
380.01 Animal antigens H 1 0.1 1 0.1 4 0.2 6 0.2
380.05 Venom U 2 0.2 3 0.1 5 0.1
All others within this exposure category7 7 0.8 4 0.4 8 0.4 19 0.5
Acids, bases and oxidizing agents 45 5.3 27 3 26 1.3 98 2.6
050.24 Sulfuric acid A L 8 0.9 4 0.4 5 0.2 17 0.5
050.10 Hydrochloric acid A L 9 1.1 5 0.6 2 0.1 16 0.4
052.011 Anhydrous ammonia A L 8 0.9 2 0.2 4 0.2 14 0.4
050.00 Acids, bases, oxidizers, n.o.s. L 3 0.4 4 0.4 5 0.2 12 0.3
050.28 Disinfectants, n.o.s. L 3 0.3 4 0.2 7 0.2
050.13 Nitric acid L 3 0.4 1 0.1 1 0.05 5 0.1
050.15 Phosphoric acid L 3 0.4 1 0.1 1 0.05 5 0.1
All others within this exposure category7 11 1.3 7 0.8 4 0.2 22 0.6
Aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons 28 3.3 24 2.7 34 1.7 86 2.3
061.07 Asphalt L 4 0.5 8 0.9 10 0.5 22 0.6
060.11 4-Phenylcyclohexene L 5 0.6 6 0.7 8 0.4 19 0.5
060.080 Natural gas L 1 0.1 2 0.2 6 0.3 9 0.2
061.060 Diesel fuel L 4 0.5 1 0.1 3 0.1 8 0.2
All others within this exposure category7 14 1.6 7 0.8 7 0.3 28 0.7
Metals and metalloids 49 5.7 12 1.3 24 1.2 85 2.3
023.000 Welding fume, n.o.s. U 11 1.3 4 0.4 7 0.3 22 0.6
021.00 Metal dust, n.o.s. U 8 0.9 1 0.1 5 0.2 14 0.4
023.10 Soldering, n.o.s. U 2 0.2 5 0.2 7 0.2
All others within this exposure category7 28 3.3 7 0.8 7 0.3 42 1.1
Physical factors 15 1.8 29 3.2 34 1.7 78 2.1
350.02 Cold N/A 9 1.1 12 1.3 15 0.7 36 1
350.03 Heat N/A 3 0.4 9 1 8 0.4 20 0.5
353.12 Assault, physical N/A 3 0.3 7 0.3 10 0.3
350.05 Humidity, high N/A 2 0.2 1 0.1 2 0.1 5 0.1
All others within this exposure category7 1 0.1 4 0.4 2 0.1 7 0.2
Aldehydes and acetals 28 3.3 10 1.1 13 0.6 51 1.4
120.03 Formaldehyde A L 22 2.6 5 0.6 5 0.2 32 0.8
120.051 Glutaraldehyde A L 3 0.4 4 0.4 7 0.3 14 0.4
All others within this exposure category7 3 0.4 1 0.1 1 0.05 5 0.1
Halogens (inorganic) 18 2.1 12 1.3 15 0.7 45 1.2
030.02 Chlorine A L 13 1.5 7 0.8 13 0.6 33 0.9
030.06 Chlorine dioxide L 1 0.1 3 0.3 1 0.05 5 0.1
All others within this exposure category7 4 0.5 2 0.2 1 0.05 7 0.2
Miscellaneous inorganic compounds 13 1.5 13 1.4 14 0.7 40 1.1
040.06 Hydrogen sulfide L 2 0.2 3 0.3 4 0.2 9 0.2
040.04 Carbon monoxide L 1 0.1 1 0.1 6 0.3 8 0.2
040.201 Sulfur dioxide L 2 0.2 2 0.2 3 0.1 7 0.2
All others within this exposure category7 8 0.9 7 0.8 1 0.05 16 0.4
Hydrocarbons, n.o.s. 25 2.9 7 0.8 7 0.3 39 1
170.01 Cutting oils A U 18 2.1 3 0.3 21 0.6
170.00 Hydrocarbons, n.o.s. U 1 0.1 3 0.3 3 0.1 7 0.2
All others within this exposure category7 6 0.7 1 0.1 4 0.2 11 0.3
Isocyanates 31 3.6 5 0.6 36 1
221.00 Diisocyanates, n.o.s. A L 14 1.6 4 0.4 18 0.5
221.02 Methylene bisphenyl diisocyanate A L 7 0.8 1 0.1 8 0.2
221.01 Toluene Diisocyanate A L 5 0.6 5 0.1
All others within this exposure category7 5 0.6 5 0.1
Polymers 15 1.8 6 0.7 6 0.3 27 0.7
270.02 Natural rubber latex A H 5 0.6 2 0.2 2 0.1 9 0.2
270.079 Polyurethane L 3 0.4 2 0.1 5 0.1
All others within this exposure category7 7 0.8 4 0.4 2 0.1 13 0.3
Microorganisms, not including mold 6 0.7 5 0.6 13 0.6 24 0.6
390.00 Microorganisms, n.o.s. U 4 0.5 5 0.6 9 0.4 18 0.5
All others within this exposure category7 2 0.2 4 0.2 6 0.2
Ketones 9 1.1 5 0.6 3 0.1 17 0.5
130.01 Acetone L 7 0.8 4 0.4 2 0.1 13 0.3
All others within this exposure category7 2 0.2 1 0.1 1 0.05 4 0.1
Alcohols 5 0.6 6 0.7 5 0.2 16 0.4
070.06 Isopropyl alcohol L 1 0.1 5 0.6 1 0.05 7 0.2
070.05 Ethanol L 3 0.4 1 0.1 2 0.1 6 0.2
All others within this exposure category7 1 0.1 2 0.1 3 0.1
Epoxy compounds 8 0.9 4 0.4 4 0.2 16 0.4
110.02 Epoxy resins A L 6 0.7 4 0.4 3 0.1 13 0.3
All others within this exposure category7 2 0.2 1 0.05 3 0.1
Hydrocarbons 5 0.6 8 0.9 1 0.05 14 0.4
Halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons 7 0.8 4 0.4 3 0.1 14 0.4
Aliphatic and alicyclic amines 4 0.5 4 0.4 8 0.2
Glycol ethers 2 0.2 2 0.2 2 0.1 6 0.2
Phenols and phenolic compounds 2 0.2 2 0.2 2 0.1 6 0.2
Aromatic nitro and amino compounds 3 0.4 1 0.1 2 0.1 6 0.2
Organophosphate pesticides/carbamate pesticides 3 0.4 3 0.3 6 0.2
292.00 Carbamate pesticides, n.o.s. L 2 0.2 3 0.3 5 0.1
All others within this exposure category7 1 0.1 1 0.03
Aliphatic carboxylic acids and anhydrides 4 0.5 1 0.1 5 0.1
All other exposure categories8 9 1.1 3 0.3 4 0.2 16 0.4
000.00 Hazard not on file 12 1.4 5 0.6 545 27 562 14.9

– indicates no cases.    n.o.s. - not otherwise specified
1 Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics (AOEC) exposure categories, exposure codes, and agents as of April 2016. See AOEC exposure code lookup for more information.
2 Substances designated as asthma causing agents by the AOEC as of April 2016.
3 MW - molecular weight, L - low molecular weight (less than 10,000 Daltons), H - high molecular weight (greater than or equal to 10,000 Daltons), U - unable to classify molecular weight, and N/A - not applicable. High and low molecular weight designations presented are not meant to serve as a definitive source of molecular weights for reported agents.
4 Asthma induced by workplace exposures. Includes cases of reactive airways dysfunction syndrome and occupational asthma.
5 Pre-existing asthma aggravated by exposure or condition at work.
6 Confirmed, but unclassified cases are confirmed work-related asthma cases that lack the necessary information to determine if they are new-onset asthma or work-aggravated asthma.
7 "All others within this exposure category" includes exposures associated with less than 5 cases.
8 "All other exposure categories" includes overall categories with less than 5 cases reported. This includes glycols (n=4), cyanides and nitriles (n=2), esters (n=3), ethers (n=2), halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (n=3), aliphatic and miscellaneous nitrogen compounds (n=1), and organic sulfur compounds (n=1).

Note:

Each case was associated with up to three putative agents.

Percentages for new-onset asthma, work-aggravated asthma, and confirmed but unclassified work-related asthma are based on the total number of cases with new-onset asthma (n=857), work-aggravated asthma (n=902), and confirmed but unclassified work-related asthma (n=2,015).

See Appendix for more information.

Source:

Sentinel surveillance data as of June 2017, reported by R. Harrison, J. Flattery, J. Weinberg (California); L. Davis, E. Pechter, and K. Fitzsimmons (Massachusetts); K. Rosenman, MJ. Reilly, and B. Pickelman (Michigan); and K. Gelberg and K. Cummings (New York).

Citation:

NIOSH 2017. Work-Related Lung Disease Surveillance System (eWoRLD). 2017-927 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Respiratory Health Division, Morgantown, WV. Available at: <https://wwwn.cdc.gov/eworld/Data/927> October 20, 2017.

Reference Number: 2017-927

Date Posted: July 2017

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