The Urine Osmolality measures the amount of solute particles contained in urine. It can indicate if the urine is overly diluted or concentrated due to hydration status or impaired renal function. The concentration of urine analytes (such as environmental chemicals) can fluctuate in spot (single determination) urine specimens depending on whether the urine is too diluted or concentrated. To compensate, the urine analyte concentration is divided by the Urine Osmolality to “standardize” the spot urine analyte concentration. Urine Osmolality will be measured by freezing point determination in the Mobile Exam Center.
Participants aged 6 years and older were tested.
The Urine Osmolality determination is based upon the principle that increased concentration of a solute in a solution causes lowering of its freezing point. This method is referred to as freezing point depression osmometry. A sample of the specimen to be analyzed is aspirated into the sample tube, which is then placed in the cooling chamber of the osmometer. The sample is super cooled below the freezing point. Then crystallization is initiated by rapidly vibrating the sample to seed it with air bubbles. After seeding, the sample temperature rises because of the heat of fusion released during the freezing process. The temperature rises until the equilibrium plateau is reached. The sample continues to freeze as the temperature begins to decrease again because of the colder environment.
The temperature at the plateau is the freezing point of the sample and can be converted to units of osmolality (osmotic concentration) by observing that 1.0 osmole depresses the freezing point of water by 1.858oC, where 1.0 osmole = 1.0 mole of osmotically active particles. A solution containing 1 osmole (1000 mOsm) of dissolved solute per kg of water lowers the freezing point of water by 1.858oC. Thus, the freezing point depression of the urine specimen can be converted to units of osmolality or osmotic concentration by dividing it by 1.858.
Detailed instructions on specimen collection and processing can be found in the NHANES Laboratory/Medical Technologists Procedures Manual (LPM).
Read the General Documentation on Laboratory Data file for detailed data processing and editing protocols. The analytical methods are described in the Description of Laboratory Methodology section above.
The NHANES quality control and quality assurance protocols (QA/QC) meet the 1988 Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act mandates. Detailed QA/QC instructions are discussed in the NHANES Laboratory/Medical Technologists Procedures Manual (LPM). Read the General Documentation on Laboratory Data file for detailed QA/QC protocols.
NHANES Survey Design:
The analysis of NHANES laboratory data must be conducted with the key survey design and basic demographic variables. The Demographic file contains: Status Variables providing core information on the survey participant including examination status, Recoded Demographic Variables including age, gender, race etc., and Interview and Examination Sample Weight Variables and Survey Design Variables. The Questionnaire Data Files contain socio-economic data, health indicators, and other related information collected during household interviews. The Phlebotomy Examination file includes auxiliary information on duration of fasting, the time of day of the venipuncture, and the conditions precluding venipuncture. The Demographic, Questionnaire and Phlebotomy Examination files may be linked to the laboratory data file using the unique survey participant identifier SEQN.
Exam sample weights should be used for analyses.
The variable named URX___ provides the analytic result for the analyte.
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