NOTE: A surveillance case definition is a set of uniform criteria used to define a disease for public health surveillance. Surveillance case definitions enable public health officials to classify and count cases consistently across reporting jurisdictions. Surveillance case definitions are not intended to be used by healthcare providers for making a clinical diagnosis or determining how to meet an individual patient’s health needs.
CSTE Position Statement(s)
An acute illness with a discrete onset of any sign or symptom consistent with acute viral hepatitis (e.g., fever, headache, malaise, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, or dark urine) AND
a) jaundice or elevated total bilirubin levels ≥ 3.0 mg/dL, OR AND
b) elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels >200 IU/L,
c) the absence of a more likely diagnosis
Laboratory Criteria for Diagnosis
Confirmatory laboratory evidence:
- Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) positive, OR
- Nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT; such as Polymerase Chain Reaction [PCR] or genotyping) for hepatitis A virus RNA positive
Contact (e.g., household or sexual) with a laboratory-confirmed hepatitis A case 15-50 days prior to onset of symptoms.
Criteria to Distinguish a New Case from an Existing Case
Hepatitis A is usually self-limiting and does not result in chronic infection. However, up to 10% of persons with hepatitis A may experience a relapse during the 6 months after acute illnesses. Cases of relapsing hepatitis A should not be enumerated as new cases. In addition, a case should not be counted as a hepatitis A case if there is an alternate, more likely diagnosis.
- A case that meets the clinical criteria and is IgM anti-HAV positive §, OR
- A case that has hepatitis A virus RNA detected by NAAT (such as PCR or genotyping), OR
- A case that meets the clinical criteria and occurs in a person who had contact (e.g., household or sexual) with a laboratory-confirmed hepatitis A case 15-50 days prior to onset of symptoms.
§ And not otherwise ruled out by IgM anti-HAV or NAAT for hepatitis A virus testing performed in a public health laboratory.