Internationally imported case: An internationally imported case is defined as a case in which mumps results from exposure to mumps virus outside the United States as evidenced by at least some of the exposure period (12–25 days before onset of parotitis or other mumps-associated complications) occurring outside the United States and the onset of parotitis or other mumps-associated complications within 25 days of entering the United States and no known exposure to mumps in the U.S. during that time. All other cases are considered U.S.-acquired cases. U.S.-acquired case: A U.S.-acquired case is defined as a case in which the patient had not been outside the United States during the 25 days before onset of parotitis or other mumps-associated complications or was known to have been exposed to mumps within the United States. U.S.-acquired cases are sub-classified into four mutually exclusive groups:
With previous contact with mumps virus either through vaccination (particularly with 2 doses) or natural infection, serum mumps IgM test results may be negative; IgG test results may be positive at initial blood draw and viral detection in RT-PCR or culture may have low yield. Therefore, mumps cases should not be ruled out by negative laboratory results. Serologic tests should be interpreted with caution, as false positive and false negative results are possible with IgM tests. Currently, there is insufficient information to determine whether any mumps strains are endemic to the United States or to distinguish endemic from non-endemic strains. States may also choose to classify cases as "out-of-state-imported" when imported from another state in the United States. For national reporting, however, cases will be classified as either internationally imported or U.S-acquired.