The streptococcal toxic shock syndrome is a severe illness associated with invasive or noninvasive group A streptococcal (Streptococcus pyogenes) infection. STSS may occur with infection at any site, but most often occurs in association with infection of a cutaneous lesion. Signs of toxicity and a rapidly progressive clinical course are characteristic, and the case fatality rate may exceed 50%.
An illness with the following clinical manifestations occurring within the first 48 hours of hospitalization or, for a nosocomial case, within the first 48 hours of illness:
Diagnosis is based on laboratory isolation of group A Streptococcus.
Isolation of group A Streptococcus from a nonsterile site in a patient with illness that meets the clinical case definition in the absence of another identified etiology for the illness.
Isolation of group A Streptococcus from a normally sterile site in a patient with an illness that meets the clinical case definition.