- What are fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine?
- What happens to fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine when they enter the environment?
- How might I be exposed to fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine?
- How can fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine enter and leave my body?
- How can fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine affect my health?
- How can fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine affect children?
- How can families reduce the risk of exposure to fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine?
- Is there a medical test to determine whether i have been exposed to fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine?
- What recommendations has the federal
government made to protect human health?
- Where can I get more information?
Public Health Statement for Fluorides, Hydrogen Fluoride, and Fluorine
Spanish: Fluoruros, fluoruro de hidrógeno y flúor
CAS#: Hydrogen Fluoride 7664-39-3; Fluorine 7782-41-4; Sodium Fluoride 7681-49-4
PDF Versionpdf icon[81.1 KB]
This Public Health Statement is the summary chapter from the Toxicological Profile for Fluorides, Hydrogen Fluoride, and Fluorines. It is one in a series of Public Health Statements about hazardous substances and their health effects. A shorter version, the
ToxFAQs™, is also available. This information is important because this substance may harm you. The effects of exposure to any hazardous substance depend on the dose, the duration, how you are exposed, personal traits and habits, and whether other chemicals are present. For more information, call the ATSDR Information Center at 1-888-422-8737.
This public health statement tells you
about fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine and the effects of exposure presented in the toxicological profile. These profiles were specifically prepared by ATSDR for hazardous substances which are most commonly found at facilities on the CERCLA National Priorities List (Superfund sites) and are intended to describe the effects of exposure from chemicals at these sites.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identifies the most serious hazardous waste sites in the nation. These sites make up the National Priorities List (NPL) and are the sites targeted for long-term federal cleanup activities. Fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine have been found in at least 188 of the 1,636 current or former NPL sites. However, the total number of NPL sites evaluated for these substances is not known. As more sites are evaluated, the sites at which fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine is found may increase. This information is important because exposure to these substances may harm you and because these sites may be sources of exposure.
When a substance is released from a large area, such as an industrial plant, or from a container, such as a drum or bottle, it enters the environment. This release does not always lead to exposure. You are exposed to a substance only when you come in contact with it. You may be exposed by breathing, eating, or drinking the substance, or by skin contact.
If you are exposed to fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine, many factors determine whether you'll be harmed. These factors include the dose (how much), the duration (how long), and how you come in contact with it/them. You must also consider the other chemicals you're exposed to and your age, sex, diet, family traits, lifestyle, and state of health.
What are fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine?
Fluorides are properly defined as binary compounds or salts of fluorine and another element. Examples of fluorides include sodium fluoride and calcium fluoride. Both are white solids. Sodium fluoride readily dissolves in water, but calcium fluoride does not. Sodium fluoride is often added to drinking water supplies and to a variety of dental products, including toothpastes and mouth rinses to prevent dental cavities. Other fluoride compounds that are commonly used for water fluoridation are fluorosilicic acid and sodium fluorosilicate. Calcium fluoride is the compound in the common minerals fluorite and fluorspar. Fluorspar is the mineral from which hydrogen fluoride is produced. It is also used in the production of glass and enamel and in the steel industry. In this profile, we will often use the term "fluoride" to include substances that contain the element fluorine. The reason for this is that we generally measure the amount of fluorine in a substance rather than the amount of a particular fluorine compound.
Fluorine is a naturally occurring, widely
distributed element and a member of the halogen family, which
includes chlorine, bromine, and iodine. However, the elemental
form of fluorine, a pale yellow-green, irritating gas with
a sharp odor, is so chemically reactive that it rarely occurs
naturally in the elemental state. Fluorine occurs in ionic
forms, or combined with other chemicals in minerals like fluorspar,
fluorapatite, and cryolite, and other compounds. (Ions are
atoms, collections of atoms, or molecules containing a positive
or negative electric charge.) Fluorine gas reacts with most
organic and inorganic substances; with metals, it forms fluorides
and with water, it forms hydrofluoric acid. Fluorine gas is
primarily used to make certain chemical compounds, the most
important of which is uranium hexafluoride, used in separating
isotopes of uranium for use in nuclear reactors and nuclear
Hydrogen fluoride is a colorless, corrosive
gas or liquid (it boils at 19.5 °C) that is made up of
a hydrogen atom and a fluorine atom. It fumes strongly, readily
dissolves in water, and both the liquid and vapor will cause
severe burns upon contact. The dissolved form is called hydrofluoric
acid. It is known for its ability to etch glass. Commercially,
hydrogen fluoride is the most important fluorine compound.
Its largest use is in the manufacture of fluorocarbons, which
are used as refrigerants, solvents, and aerosols.
For more information on the chemical
properties of fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine,
and their production and use, see Chapters 4 and 5.
What happens to fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine when they enter the environment?
Fluorides occur naturally in the earth's
crust where they are found in rocks, coal, clay, and soil.
They are released into the air in wind-blown soil. Hydrogen
fluoride is released to the air from fluoride-containing substances,
including coal, minerals, and clays, when they are heated
to high temperatures. This may occur in coal-fired power plants;
aluminum smelters; phosphate fertilizer plants; glass, brick,
and tile works; and plastics factories. These facilities may
also release fluorides attached to particles. The biggest
natural source of hydrogen fluoride and other fluorides released
to the air is volcanic eruptions.
Fluorine cannot be destroyed in the environment;
it can only change its form. Fluorides released into the atmosphere
from volcanoes, power plants, and other high temperature processes
are usually hydrogen fluoride gas or attached to very small
particles. Fluorides contained in wind-blown soil are generally
found in larger particles. These particles settle to the ground
or are washed out of the air by rain. Fluorides that are attached
to very small particles may stay in the air for many days.
Hydrogen fluoride gas will be absorbed by rain and into clouds
and fog to form aqueous hydrofluoric acid, which will fall
to the ground mainly in precipitation. The fluorides released
into air will eventually fall on land or water.
In water, fluorides associate with various
elements present in the water, mainly with aluminum in freshwater
and calcium and magnesium in seawater, and settle into the
sediment where they are strongly attached to sediment particles.
When deposited on land, fluorides are strongly retained by
soil, forming strong associations with soil components. Leaching
removes only a small amount of fluorides from soils. Fluorides
may be taken up from soil and accumulate in plants, or they
may be deposited on the upper parts of the plants in dust.
The amount of fluoride taken up by plants depends on the type
of plant, the nature of the soil, and the amount and form
of fluoride in the soil. Tea plants are known to accumulate
fluoride in their leaves. Animals that eat fluoride-containing
plants may accumulate fluoride. However, the fluoride accumulates
primarily in the bones or shell rather than in edible meat.
For more information about what happens
to fluorides in the environment, see Chapter 6.
How might I be exposed to fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine?
Fluoride is a natural component of the
earth's crust and soil. Small amounts of fluorides are present
in water, air, plants, and animals. You may be exposed to
small amounts of fluoride by breathing air, drinking water,
and eating food. In particular, fluorides are frequently added
to drinking water supplies at approximately 1 part of fluoride
per million parts of water (ppm) and to toothpaste and mouth
rinses to prevent dental decay. Analytical methods used by
scientists to determine the levels of fluoride in the environment
generally do not determine the specific form of fluoride present.
Therefore, we do not always know the form of fluoride that
a person may be exposed to. Similarly, we do not know what
forms of fluoride are present at hazardous waste sites. Some
forms of fluoride may be insoluble or so tightly attached
to particles or embedded in minerals that they are not taken
up by plants or animals.
Fluorides are normally found in very
small amounts in the air. Levels measured in areas around
cities are usually less than 1 microgram (one millionth of
a gram) of fluoride per cubic meter (μg/m³) of air.
Rural areas have even lower levels. The amount of fluoride
that you breathe in a day is much less than what you consume
in food and water. You may breathe in higher levels of fluoride
in areas near coal-fired power plants or fluoride-related
industries (e.g., aluminum smelters, phosphorus fertilizer
plants) or near hazardous waste sites.
Levels of fluorides in surface water
average about 0.2 parts of fluoride per million parts of water
(ppm). Levels of fluorides in well water generally range from
0.02 to 1.5 ppm, but often exceed 1.5 ppm in parts of the
southwest United States. Many communities fluoridate their
water supplies; the recommended level of fluoride is around
1 ppm. In the United States, approximately 15,000 water systems
serving about 162 million people are fluoridated in the optimal
range of 0.7-1.2 ppm, either occurring naturally or through
adjustment. Persons living in non-fluoridated areas may receive
water exposure through beverages and foods processed in fluoridated
areas. You will be exposed to fluorides in the water that
you drink or in beverages prepared with fluoridated water.
The concentration of fluorides in soils
is usually between 200 and 300 ppm. However, levels may be
higher in areas containing fluoride-containing mineral deposits.
Higher levels may also occur where phosphate fertilizers are
used, where coal-fired power plants or fluoride-releasing
industries are located, or in the vicinity of hazardous waste
sites. You may be exposed to fluorides through dermal contact
with these soils.
You may also be exposed to fluorides
in your diet. While food generally contains low levels of
fluoride, food grown in areas where soils have high amounts
of fluorides or where phosphate fertilizers are used may have
higher levels of fluorides. Tea and some seafoods have been
found to have high levels of fluorides. The average daily
fluoride intake by adults from food and water is estimated
to be 1 milligram (mg) if you live in a community with <0.7
ppm in your water, and about 2.7 mg if you have fluoridated
water. You can contact your local water system to determine
the level of fluoride in your drinking water or refer to the
annual Consumer Confidence Report furnished by your water
system operators. You may also be exposed to fluoride in dental
products, such as toothpastes, fluoride gels, and fluoride
rinses. Dental products used in the home such as toothpastes,
rinses, and topically applied gels contain high concentrations
of fluoride (range 230-12,300 ppm) and are not intended to
be ingested. The most commonly used dental products, toothpastes,
contain 900-1,100 ppm fluoride (ca. 0.10%), most often as
sodium fluoride. If you swallow these products, you will be
exposed to higher levels of fluoride. Swallowing toothpaste
can account for a large percentage of the fluoride to which
a child <8 years of age might be exposed The Food and Drug
Administration requires that toothpaste tubes be labeled with
instructions to minimize ingestion of fluoride by children
including the use of a "pea-sized" amount of paste
and parental supervision of brushing.
You may also be exposed to higher levels
of fluoride if you work in industries where fluoride-containing
substances are used, most notably in the electronics industry
where hydrogen fluoride may be used to etch glass in TV picture
tubes or to clean silicon chips and in aluminum and phosphate
fertilizer plants. Exposure will primarily result from breathing
in hydrogen fluoride or fluoride-containing dust. Exposure
will be reduced if exhaust systems or protective masks are
used in the workplace.
For more information on how you can be
exposed to fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, or fluorine, see
How can fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine enter and leave my body?
Generally, most of the fluoride in food
or water that you swallow enters your bloodstream quickly
through the digestive tract. However, the amount that enters
your bloodstream also depends on factors such as how much
of the fluoride you swallowed, how well the fluoride dissolves
in water, whether you ate or drank recently, and what you
ate or drank. Factors such as age and health status affect
what happens to the fluoride ion once it is in your body.
After entering your body, about half of the fluoride leaves
the body quickly in urine, usually within 24 hours unless
large amounts (20 mg or more, which is the amount in 20 or
more liters of optimally fluoridated water) are ingested.
Most of the fluoride ion that stays in your body is stored
in your bones and teeth.
When you breathe in air containing hydrogen
fluoride or fluoride dusts, it enters your bloodstream quickly
through your lungs. When hydrofluoric acid touches skin, most
of it can quickly pass through the skin into the blood. How
much of it enters your bloodstream depends on how concentrated
the hydrofluoric acid is and how long it stays on your skin.
Almost all of the fluoride that enters the body in these ways
is quickly removed from the body in the urine, but some is
stored in your bones and teeth.
When you breathe in air containing fluorine,
fluoride can enter your bloodstream through your lungs, but
it is not known how quickly this happens. Much of the fluoride
leaves your body in urine, but some is stored in your bones
and teeth. Exposure to fluorine gas is uncommon, except in
For more information on how fluorides,
hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine enter and leave your body,
see Chapter 3.
How can fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine affect my health?
To protect the public from the harmful
effects of toxic chemicals and to find ways to treat people
who have been harmed, scientists use many tests.
One way to see if a chemical will hurt
people is to learn how the chemical is absorbed, used, and
released by the body; for some chemicals, animal testing may
be necessary. Animal testing may also be used to identify
health effects such as cancer or birth defects. Without laboratory
animals, scientists would lose a basic method to get information
needed to make wise decisions to protect public health. Scientists
have the responsibility to treat research animals with care
and compassion. Laws today protect the welfare of research
animals, and scientists must comply with strict animal care
guidelines and must be recertified regularly with training
in updated and new guidelines.
Fluorides. Several medicines that contain
fluoride are used for treating skin diseases (e.g., flucytosine,
an antifungal) and some cancers (e.g., fluorouracil, an antimetabolite).
Small amounts of fluoride are added to
toothpaste or drinking water to help prevent dental decay.
However, exposure to higher levels of fluoride may harm your
health. Skeletal fluorosis can be caused by eating, drinking,
or breathing very large amounts of fluorides. This disease
only occurs after long-term exposures and can cause denser
bones, joint pain, and a limited range of joint movement.
In the most severe cases, the spine is completely rigid. Skeletal
fluorosis is extremely rare in the United States; it has occurred
in some people consuming greater than 30 times the amount
of fluoride typically found in fluoridated water. It is more
common in places where people do not get proper nutrition.
At fluoride levels 5 times greater than levels typically found
in fluoridated water, fluoride can result in denser bones.
However, these bones are often more brittle or fragile than
normal bone and there is an increased risk of older men and
women breaking a bone. Some studies have also found a higher
risk of bone fractures in older men and women at fluoride
levels typically found in fluoridated water. However, other
studies have not found an effect at this fluoride dose. If
you eat large amounts of sodium fluoride at one time, it can
cause stomachaches, vomiting, and diarrhea. Extremely large
amounts can cause death by affecting your heart.
We do not know if eating, drinking, or
breathing fluoride can cause reproductive effects in humans.
Reproductive effects, such as decreased fertility and sperm
and testes damage, have been seen in laboratory animals at
extremely high doses (more than 100 times higher than levels
found in fluoridated water). However, other studies have not
found any reproductive effects in laboratory animals.
A number of studies have been done to
assess whether there is an association between fluoride and
cancer in people who live in areas with fluoridated water
or naturally high levels of fluoride in drinking water, or
people who work in jobs where they may be exposed to fluorides.
Most studies have not found any association between fluoride
and cancer in people. A study in rats and mice found that
a small number of male rats developed bone cancer after drinking
water with high levels of fluoride in it throughout their
lives. This was considered equivocal evidence that fluoride
causes cancer in male rats. Fluoride did not cause cancer
in mice or female rats. Another study found no evidence that
even higher doses of fluoride caused cancer in rats. Both
animal studies had problems that limited their usefulness
in showing whether fluoride can cause cancer in humans. The
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined
that the carcinogenicity of fluoride to humans is not classifiable.
Hydrogen Fluoride. Hydrogen fluoride
is also a very irritating gas. Hydrogen fluoride is not as
dangerous as fluorine, but large amounts of it can also cause
death. People breathing hydrogen fluoride have complained
of eye, nose, and skin irritation. Breathing in a large amount
of hydrogen fluoride with air can also harm the lungs and
heart. Kidney and testes damage have been observed in animals
breathing hydrogen fluoride.
Hydrofluoric acid is dangerous to humans
because it can burn the eyes and skin. The initial exposure
to hydrofluoric acid may not look like a typical acid burn.
Skin may only appear red and may not be painful at first.
Damage to skin may happen over several hours or days, and
deep, painful wounds may develop. When not treated properly,
serious skin damage and tissue loss can occur. In the worst
cases, getting a large amount of hydrofluoric acid on your
skin can lead to death caused by the fluoride affecting your
lungs or heart.
Fluorine. Fluorine gas is very irritating
and very dangerous to the eyes, skin, and lungs. Fluorine
gas at low concentrations makes your eyes and nose hurt. At
higher concentrations, it becomes hard to breathe. Exposure
to high concentrations of fluorine can cause death due to
For more information on the health effects
of fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine, see Chapter
3. For more information on fluoride and dental caries, see
How can fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine affect children?
This section discusses potential health
effects from exposures during the period from conception to
maturity at 18 years of age in humans.
When used appropriately, fluoride is
effective in preventing and controlling dental caries. Drinking
or eating excessive fluoride during the time teeth are being
formed can cause visible changes in teeth. The condition is
called dental fluorosis. The changes increase in severity
with increasing levels of fluoride. Dental fluorosis develops
only while the teeth are forming in the jaw and before they
erupt into the mouth (age <8 years). After the teeth have
developed and erupted, they cannot become fluorosed. Most
enamel fluorosis seen today is of the mildest form, in which
there are a few almost invisible white spots on the teeth.
In moderate cases, there are large white spots on the teeth
(mottled teeth), and some brown spots. In severe cases, the
teeth are pitted and are fragile, and sometimes the teeth
can break. The appearance of affected teeth is not identical
for all children exposed to the same level of fluoride in
the drinking water. Exposure to fluoride from other sources,
such as fluoride tablets or rinses, may account for these
differences. In general, some children who drink water with
1 ppm fluoride may get a few small spots or slight discolorations
on their teeth. Some children who drink water with 4 ppm fluoride
in it for long periods before their permanent teeth are in
place may develop a more severe form of dental fluorosis.
Fluoride can cross the placenta from
the mother's blood to the developing fetus. Only a very small
portion of fluoride ingested by women is transferred to a
child through breast milk. Several human studies found an
increase in birth defects or lower IQ scores in children living
in areas with very high levels of fluoride in the drinking
water. Those studies did not adequately access other factors
that could have contributed to the effects. Another study
did not find birth defects in children living in areas with
low levels of fluoride. Birth defects have not been found
in most studies of laboratory animals.
How can families reduce the risk of exposure to fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine?
If your doctor finds that you have been
exposed to significant amounts of fluorides, hydrogen fluoride,
and fluorine, ask whether your children might also be exposed.
Your doctor might need to ask your state health department
It is unlikely that the general population
would be exposed to fluorine gas or hydrogen fluoride. Because
fluorides are found naturally in the environment, we cannot
avoid being exposed to them. Some areas of the United States,
such as the Southwest, naturally have high levels of fluorides
in well water. There has been an increase in the cosmetic
condition of tooth enamel fluorosis in children in both fluoridated
and non-fluoridated communities. Ask your health department
whether your area has naturally high levels of fluorides in
the drinking water. If you live in such an area, you should
use bottled drinking water and consult your dentist for guidance
on the need for appropriate alternative fluoride supplements.
These areas may also contain high levels
of fluorides in soil. A few hazardous waste sites may contain
high levels of fluorides in soil. By limiting your contact
with such soil (for example, reducing recreational activities
that raise dust), you would reduce your family's exposure
to fluoride. Some children eat a lot of dirt. You should prevent
your children from eating dirt. You should discourage your
children from putting their hands or objects in their mouths
or engaging in other hand-to-mouth activity. Make sure they
wash their hands frequently and always before eating.
If you work in a phosphate fertilizer
plant or other industry that uses minerals high in fluorides,
it is sometimes possible to carry fluorides home from work
on your clothing, skin, hair, tools, or other objects removed
from the workplace. You may contaminate your car, home, or
other locations outside work where children might be exposed
to fluoride-containing dust. Your occupational health and
safety officer at work can and should tell you whether the
chemicals that you work with are likely to be carried home
on your clothes, body, or tools as well as whether you should
be showering and changing clothes before you leave work, storing
your street clothes in a separate area of the workplace, or
laundering your work clothes at home separately from other
Children may be exposed to high levels
of fluorides if they swallow dental products containing fluoridated
toothpaste, gels, or rinses. Swallowing toothpaste can account
for a large percentage of the fluoride to which a small child
might be exposed. You should teach your children not to swallow
these products. For children under age 8, parents should supervise
brushing and place, at most, a small pea size dab of toothpaste
on the brush.
Is there a medical test to determine whether i have been exposed to fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine?
Urine and blood samples can be analyzed
to find out if you have been exposed to fluorides. The fluoride
level in the sample is compared with the level of fluoride
usually found in urine or blood. This will show if a person
has been exposed recently to higher-than-normal levels of
fluorides. However, this test cannot be used to predict any
specific health effects that may occur after fluoride exposure.
The test must be performed soon after exposure because fluoride
that is not stored in the bones leaves the body within a few
days. This test can be done at most laboratories that test
for chemical exposure. Bone sampling can be done in special
cases to measure long-term exposure to fluorides. Because
fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine all enter the body
as fluoride, these tests cannot distinguish among exposure
to these different chemicals.
For more information on medical tests
to determine exposure to fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and
fluorine, see Chapters 3 and 6.
What recommendations has the federal government made to protect human health?
The federal government develops regulations
and recommendations to protect public health. Regulations
can be enforced by law. Federal agencies that develop regulations
for toxic substances include the Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA), the Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Recommendations
provide valuable guidelines to protect public health but cannot
be enforced by law. Federal organizations that develop recommendations
for toxic substances include the Agency for Toxic Substances
and Disease Registry (ATSDR) and the National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
Regulations and recommendations can be
expressed in not-to-exceed levels in air, water, soil, or
food that are usually based on levels that affect animals;
then they are adjusted to help protect people. Sometimes these
not-to-exceed levels differ among federal organizations because
of different exposure times (an 8-hour workday or a 24-hour
day), the use of different animal studies, or other factors.
Recommendations and regulations are also
periodically updated as more information becomes available.
For the most current information, check with the federal agency
or organization that provides it. Some regulations and recommendations
for fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine include the
Sodium fluoride, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine have been named hazardous substances by the EPA. The federal government has set regulatory standards and guidelines to protect workers from the possible health effects of fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine in air. OSHA has set a legally enforceable limit of 0.2 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3) for fluorine, 2.0 mg/m3 for hydrogen fluoride, and 2.5 mg/m3 for fluoride in workroom air to protect workers during an 8-hour shift over a 40-hour work week. NIOSH recommends air levels of 0.2 mg/m3 for fluorine, 2.5 mg/m3 for hydrogen fluoride, and 2.5 mg/m3 for sodium fluoride in workroom air to protect workers during an 8-hour shift over a 40-hour work week.
The federal government has also set regulatory standards and guidelines to protect the public from the possible health effects of fluoride in drinking water. EPA determined that the maximum amount of fluoride allowed in drinking water is 4.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L).
For the prevention of dental decay, the Public Health Service (PHS) has, since 1962, recommended that public water supplies contain fluoride at concentrations between 0.7 and 1.2 mg/L. PHS scientists representing the National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the FDA, ATSDR, and other government agencies conducted an extensive examination of the worldwide biomedical literature on the public health risks and benefits of fluoride in 1991. The PHS report stated that fluoride in the drinking water substantially reduces tooth decay.
For more information on recommendations regarding exposure to fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine, see Chapter 8.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 2001. Toxicological profile for Fluorides, Hydrogen Fluoride, and Fluorine. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service.
Where can I get more information?
If you have questions or concerns, please contact your community or state health or environmental quality department or:
For more information, contact:
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences
4770 Buford Highway
Chamblee, GA 30341-3717
Phone: 1-800-CDC-INFO 888-232-6348 (TTY)
Email: Contact CDC-INFO
ATSDR can also tell you the location of occupational and environmental health clinics. These clinics specialize in recognizing, evaluating, and treating illnesses resulting from exposure to hazardous substances.