ToxFAQsTM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH)
Spanish: Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH)
PDF Versionpdf icon[172 KB]
This fact sheet answers the most frequently
asked health questions about total petroleum hydrocarbons
(TPH). For more information, you may call the ATSDR Information Center at 1-800-232-4636. This fact sheet is one in a series of summaries about hazardous substances and their health effects. It is important you understand this information because this substance may harm you. The effects of exposure to any hazardous substance depend on the dose, the duration, how you are exposed, personal traits and habits, and whether other chemicals are present.
TPH is a mixture
of many different compounds. Everyone is exposed to TPH
from many sources, including gasoline pumps, spilled oil
on pavement, and chemicals used at home or work. Some
TPH compounds can affect your nervous system, causing
headaches and dizziness. TPH has been found in at least
23 of the 1,467 National Priorities List sites identified
by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
are total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)?
Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) is
a term used to describe a large family of several hundred
chemical compounds that originally come from crude oil. Crude
oil is used to make petroleum products, which can contaminate
the environment. Because there are so many different chemicals
in crude oil and in other petroleum products, it is not practical
to measure each one separately. However, it is useful to measure
the total amount of TPH at a site.
TPH is a mixture of chemicals, but they
are all made mainly from hydrogen and carbon, called hydrocarbons.
Scientists divide TPH into groups of petroleum hydrocarbons
that act alike in soil or water. These groups are called petroleum
hydrocarbon fractions. Each fraction contains many individual
Some chemicals that may be found in TPH
are hexane, jet fuels, mineral oils, benzene, toluene, xylenes,
naphthalene, and fluorene, as well as other petroleum products
and gasoline components. However, it is likely that samples
of TPH will contain only some, or a mixture, of these chemicals.
What happens to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) when they enter the environment?
- TPH may enter the environment through accidents, from
industrial releases, or as byproducts from commercial or
- TPH may be released directly into water through spills
- Some TPH fractions will float on the water and form surface
- Other TPH fractions will sink to the bottom sediments.
- Bacteria and microorganisms in the water may break down
some of the TPH fractions.
- Some TPH fractions will move into the soil where they
may stay for a long time.
How might I be exposed to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)?
- Everyone is exposed to TPH from many sources.
- Breathing air at gasoline stations, using chemicals at
home or work, or using certain pesticides.
- Drinking water contaminated with TPH.
- Working in occupations that use petroleum products.
- Living in an area near a spill or leak of petroleum products.
- Touching soil contaminated with TPH.
How can total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) affect my health?
Some of the TPH compounds can affect
your central nervous system. One compound can cause headaches
and dizziness at high levels in the air. Another compound
can cause a nerve disorder called "peripheral neuropathy,"
consisting of numbness in the feet and legs. Other TPH compounds
can cause effects on the blood, immune system, lungs, skin,
Animal studies have shown effects on
the lungs, central nervous system, liver, and kidney from
exposure to TPH compounds. Some TPH compounds have also been
shown to affect reproduction and the developing fetus in animals.
How likely are total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) to cause cancer?
The International Agency for Research
on Cancer (IARC) has determined that one TPH compound (benzene)
is carcinogenic to humans. IARC has determined that other
TPH compounds (benzo[a]pyrene and gasoline) are probably and
possibly carcinogenic to humans. Most of the other TPH compounds
are considered not to be classifiable by IARC.
Is there a medical test to show whether I've been exposed to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)?
There is no medical test that shows if
you have been exposed to TPH. However, there are methods to
determine if you have been exposed to some TPH compounds.
Exposure to kerosene can be determined by its smell on the
breath or clothing. Benzene can be measured in exhaled air
and a breakdown product of benzene can be measured in urine.
Other TPH compounds can be measured in blood, urine, breath,
and some body tissues.
Has the federal government made recommendations to
protect human health?
There are no regulations or advisories
specific to TPH. The following are recommendations for some
of the TPH fractions and compounds:
The EPA requires that spills or accidental
releases into the environment of 10 pounds or more of benzene
be reported to the EPA.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration
has set an exposure limit of 500 parts of petroleum distillates
per million parts of air (500 ppm) for an 8-hour workday, 40-hour workweek.
Carcinogenicity: Ability to cause cancer.
CAS: Chemical Abstracts Service.
Immune system: Body organs and cells
that fight disease.
Pesticides: Chemicals used to kill pests.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1999. Toxicological Profile for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service.
Where can I get more information?
If you have questions or concerns, please contact your community or state health or environmental quality department or:
For more information, contact:
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Office of Innovation and Analytics, Toxicology Section
4770 Buford Highway
Chamblee, GA 30341-3717
Phone: 1-800-CDC-INFO 888-232-6348 (TTY)
Email: Contact CDC-INFO
ATSDR can also tell you the location of occupational and environmental health clinics. These clinics specialize in recognizing, evaluating, and treating illnesses resulting from exposure to hazardous substances.