Bibliography of Question Evaluation Resources

The following resources can help users learn more about question evaluation in general, different question evaluation methods, and practical ways to implement question evaluation methods in survey research.

Cognitive Aspects of Survey Research
Blair, E., & Burton, S., Cognitive Processes Used by Survey Respondents to Answer Behavioral Frequency Questions in Surveys. Public Opinion Quarterly
Burton, S., & Blair, E., Tasks Conditions, Response Formulation Processes, and Response Accuracy for Behavioral Frequency Questions in Surveys. Public Opinion Quarterly, 55(1), 50.
Groves, R.M., Fowler Jr., Couper, M.P., Lepkowski, J.M., Singer, E., & Tourangeau, R., Questions and Answers in Surveys. Survey Methodology (2nd ed., pp. 217-255). Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley-Interscience
Groves, R.M., Survey error models and cognitive theories of response behavior. In M.G. Sirken, D.J. Hermann, S. Schechter, N. Schwarz, J.M. Tanur, & R.Tourangeau (Eds.), Cognition and Survey Research (1st ed., pp.235-250). Wiley- Interscience.
Holbrook, A., Cho, Y.I. & Johnson, T.,The Impact of Question and Respondent Characteristics on Comprehension and Mapping Difficulties. Public Opinion Quarterly 70(4), 565-595.
Krosnick, J. A., Narayan, S., & Smith, W.R.(1996). Satisficing in Surveys: Initial evidence. New Directions for Evaluation, 1996 (70), 29-44
Sudman, S., Bradburn, N.M., & Schwarz, N.,Thinking About Answers: The Application of Cognitive Processes to Survey Methodology. Jossey-Bass.
Question Evaluation Methods
Beatty, P.C., & Willis, G.B. Research Synthesis: The Practice of Cognitive Interviewing. Public Opinion Quarterly, 71(2), 287-311.
Collins, D. (2003). Pretesting survey instruments: an overview of cognitive methods. Quality of life research: an international journal of quality of life aspects of treatment, care, and rehabilitation, 12(3), 229-38. Retrieved from
Conrad, F.G., & Blair, J. (2009). Sources of Error in Cognitive Interviews. Public Opinion Quarterly, 73(1), 32-55.
Conrad, Frederick G., & Blair, J. (1996) Proceedings of the section on Survey Research Methods, American Statistical Association (pp. 1-10). Alexandria, VA. Retrieved from
Conrad, Frederick G., & Blair, J. (1999) Verbal Reports are Data! A Theoretical Approach to Cognitive Interviews. Washington, DC. Retreived from
DeMaio, T.J., & Rothgeb, J.M. (1996) Cognitive Interviewing Techniques in the Lab and in the Field. Answering Questions: Methodology for Determining Cognitive and Communicative Processes in Survey Research (pp. 177-195).
Esposito, J.L.(2002). Iterative, Multiple-Method Questionnaire Evaluation Research: A Case Study. International Conference on Questionnaire Development, Evaluation, and Testing Methods. Retrieved from
Fowler Jr., F.J., & Cannell, C.F. (1996) Using behavioral coding to identify cognitive problems with survey questions.
Goldenberg, K.L., Anderson, A.E., Willimack,D.K., Freedman, S.R., Rutchick, R.H., & Moy, L.M., Experiences Implementing Establishment Survey Questionnaire Development and Testing at Selected U.S. Government Agencies. International Conference on Questionnaire Development, Evaluation, and Testing Methods. Retrieved from two/goldenberg.pdf
Groves, R. M., Fowler Jr., F.J., Couper, M.P., Lepkowski, J.M., Singer,E.,& Tourangeau, R., Evaluating Survey Questions. Survey Methodology (2nd ed., pp. 259-288). Hoboken, NJ, USA.
Miller, K., Conducting Cognitive interviews to understand question-response limitations. American Journal of Health Behavior, 27 Suppl 3, S264-72. Retrieved from
Morton, J., Mullin, P., & Biemer, P.P. (2002). Using Reinterview Methods to Design and Evaluate Survey Questions. International Conference on Questionnaire Development, Evaluation and Testing Methods. Retrieved from two/Morton.pdf
N.Schwarz & S.Sudman. Answering Questions: Methodology for Determining Cognitive and Communicative Processes in Survey Research (pp15.36). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
Presser, S., Couper, M.P., Lessler, J.T., Martin, E., Martin, J., Rothgeb, J.M., Singer, E.(2004). Public Opinion Quarterly, 68(1), 109-130.
Saris, W.E., & Gallhofer, I.N., Design, Evaluation, and Analysis of Questionnaires for Survey Research. Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Willis, G.B., Miller, K., Cross-Cultural Cognitive Interviewing: Seeking Comparability and Enhancing Understanding, Field Methods, 23(4), 331-341.
Questionnaire Design
Beaty,P.(1995) Understanding the Standardized/NonStandardized Interviewing Controversy. Journal of Official Statistics, 11(2), 147-160.
Biemer, P.P.(2011). Total Survey Error: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation. Public Opinion Quarterly, 74(5), 817-848.
Biemer, Paul P., Groves, R. M., Lyberg, L.E., Mathiowetx, N.A., & Sudman, S. (1991).Measurement Errors in Surveys(1st ed.). Retrieved from
Conrad, F G, & Schober, M.F.(2000). Clarifying question meaning in a household telephone survey. Public opinion quarterly, 64(1), 1-28. Retrieved from
Fowler, J. (1992). How Unclear Terms Affect Survey Data. Public Opinion Quarterly, 56(2), 218.
Schaeffer, N.C., & Dykema, J. Questions for Surveys: Current Trends and Future Directions. Public Opinion Quarterly, 75(5), 909-961.
Schober, M.F., & Conrad, F.G. (1997). Does Conversational Interviewing Reduce Survey Measurement Error? Public Opinion Quarterly, 61(4), 576.
Sudman, S., & Bradburn, N.M. (1982). Asking Questions: A Practical Guide to Questionnaire Design. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Tourangeau, R., & Smith, T.W. (1996). Asking Sensitive Questions: The Impact of Data collection Mode, Question Format, and Question Context. Public Opinion Quarterly, 60(2),275.
Willis, Gordon. 2005. Cognitive Interviewing: A Tool for Improving Questionnaire Design. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. ISBN: 0761928049
Survey Design
Aday, Lu A. and Llewellyn J. Cornelius. 2006. Designing and Conducting Health Surveys: A Comprehensive Guide, 3rd Edition. New York: Wiley. ISBN: 0787975605
Survey Response
Tourangeau, Roger, Lance Rips, and Ken Rasinski. 2000. The Psychology of Survey Response. Cambridge. ISBN: 0521576296